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Tlje Hihrnian Patriot : , 

Being a Collection of the 

D R A P I E R'S 


People of IRELAND, 


— *" — """^"^rv r.i if, iliirri iijj_ __ 

^''C^tnfi.u^Chx <S. 

Reasons for the People of lREhAND\ 
refafing it. 

To which are added, POEMS and SONGS 

relating to the fame Subjeft. -j- e^H^a,^ S^nlt 

O thou^ whatever Title pleafe thine Ear^ ,. . - 
Dean, Drapier, B ckerftaff;^ pv Gu^v^r .? ; * '. -. >^ V* 
Whether thou chufeQ^i^iJ^^fis^'feli^is j4jr^'»'' i -- ' 
Or laugh and pake in 'KalJiais eaj^,Qhairi^ y • 
Or praife the Courts or magn}^^ mtiit^dy\ •, , 
Or thy grieved Countref^ CoppCB Ocdikiuhiitid^y* 
From thy Boeotja tho^ her Pnzo\ refMsy :- Vl '-; 
Grieve not, my Swift, at;ougkV3aitf' Realm 'acquires. 


Printed at DUBLIN. 


Reprinted and Sold by A. Moor in St. Paurs Chur:h-yari^ . 
and the Bookfellers of London and Wejlainftery 

MDCcxxit:. v>^. 





• ^ ■ : • 



[HE Greateft Part of the Mowing 
Papers wa$ written by a Gentle* 
man (who flyled hinafelf the Dnf^ 
per) for die Prefervation of hk Fellow Sub* 
'^si thi5 Love for his Country, and not a 
Defire of Faoif ^ or Aj>plaufe from the Vulgpr^ 
in(ibiced him to piiblUb Aerh ta the World: 
And every ofle was fo fenfible not only of this, 
bijj: ajfodf Iws Capacity tafer^evtheJNaeiottj 
thai they teftified^tllcir ;:^ck^aHwiedg^ 
h in the riioft pubtidp ^Iinn0*,,an^ when 
^bfee Hundred Pounds Stkr. we?e/ offered by 
Prockmation of the* 0oVerinalent; to any 
faith&l Subjeft that would, difeovcr the Au^ 
A thor. 

The P R E F A C E. 

thor, not one fingle Perfon was induced- by k 
to inform againft him. 

The Style of the Letters is peculiarly ad- 
apted to the Occafion; for, as they are writ- 
ten for the Benefit of the whole People of 
Ireland^ their Style, tho' plain and eafy, never 
finks into the Languid; and tho* not fill'd with 
Metaphors or high Expreflions, falls not fb 
low as to offend, or grate the Ears of the 
politeft Reader. He has couched the ftrong- 
eft Reafoning, in the moft familiar Phrafes., 
cxpofed the Villany of Wood and his Pryec-- 
torSy with Arguments of undeniable Force; 
and (hewn with the utmoft Peripicuity, th? 
Neceflity the Nation was under, not to re- 
ceive them. I fhall fay no more of his 'Cha-^ 
rafter than this, that, as there never was 
any Projeft contrived of greater Villany, any 
Roguery more cunningly carried on, better 
fupported, or which tended more to the Ru- 
in and entire Subverfion of the Liberties, and 
Credit of a whole Nation; fo there was ne- 
ver zny^iP.4f6fiot:o£ .a .greater Capacity for de- 
tecting' fucK*k villinoiiS/^'nempt, ^and fearch- 
ing into xh^l l\i:^iuiait Mobile of this Cheat; 
or who fij{q»rtea;4V]liiki^g Kingdom, and aP- 
ferted thfe LnfetVcicsV^if^^i People with greater 
Zeal and Affedion, 


The P R E F A C E: 

The Occafion of their appearing in Print/ 
Was this. It having been many Years, fince 
Copper-Halfpence had been coined in this' 
Kingdom, and many Counterfeits, paffing un- 
der the Name of Raps^ feveral Applications 
were made to England ^ that this Kingdom 
might have Liberty to coin new ones, but 
all without Succefs. At laft, one Mr. Pf^ood^ 
an Englijhmany and a Hard-ware Dealer^ pro- 
cured a Patent under his Majefty's Broad 
Seal, to coin Fourfcore and ten Thoufand 
Pounds in Copper ^ for the Ufe of this King- 
dom. But, Mr. Wood made his Halfpence fo 
fmall, and of fuchbafe Metal, that, the whole 
Ninety T'houfand Pounds were not worth real 
Value, more than Eight or Nine. This, the 
whole Nation was immediately fenfible of; and 
perceived, that it might give Occafion, not 
only for coining of Counterfeits, by fome felf- 
interefted Braziers in this Kingdom, and our 
Neighbours the Dutch, but alfo, that Mr. 
W^ood eafily might, and willingly would, im- 
pofe upon us, four times the Sum his Pa- 
tent allowed him. This was the Reafon, the 
Kingdom refufed to admit the Copper Half- 
pence as current Money. Mr. fFood feeing ^U 
his Expedations fruftrated, applies to his" 
Great Friends at Court, ancl orders feveral 
threatning Expreffions to be printed in the 

A 2 publick 

The P R E F A C E. 
publick News-papers, which put the whole 
Nation under difmal Apprehcnfions, which 
tJbey could not readily free themfelves frqtn^ 
being ignorant of how large an Extent the 
Prerogative of bis Majefty might be, ia thisi 

Thujs unhappily circumftanc'd was the 
Nation, when the following Letters, were 
writ 5 and tho' now by his Aflfertion, and 
fpme other worthy. Patriots glorious Defence 
^f the Liberties of their Country, the villa^ 
nous Projeft of Mr. Wood is entirely crufli'dt 
thp Dread of fuch bafe Copper Half^pence va^ 
nifh'd, and the Trade of the Kingdom fettled 
i^ a more flourifhing Condition than it has 
been for ibme Time pail ; yet a Colledtron of 
the following Papers: is neceflary and proper 
to be kept by all People, not only as the naoft 
durable Memorial of the imminent Danger the 
Nation was involved in, and a Teftimony of 
our Gratitude to thofe wofthy Gentlemen s 
but likcwife as the beft and ftrongeff Argu- 
ments that can be ofFer'd againfl an Invafion. 
of our Liberties this Way, (honlA another Waqd 
ever have Intereft enough to obtain a Patent 
ftom His Majefty for the Coinage of Brafs 

[The Seasonable Advice to the Grand Jh^ 
ryh as repaaikable a DefSsnqe of Private Lir. 


The P R E F A C E. 
htrtff u the Letters are of Publick. 

Mr. Hiarhin^ it feems, being taken up for print- 
ing the Drapier's Fourth Letter, the Night be- 
fyre the Grand Jury were to find the Bai, 
^is SsAsoiffABLE Ab V I c £ vns by fOttib 
. itoeiins br 0thftr conveyed to the Hands of eadi 
of ihem, It had th6 ianbe Effea: upon them 
that, 1 am perfuadcd, it will have on every Rei- 
ser, convinced them of the Innoceflcy of the 
PHhtef, or the Unjuftnefe of the Bill; accord- 
ingly they unanimoufly threw it out. The 
Lord Chief jtiftite Whitejhead being then oft 
the Bench feht them back feveral Times, per^ 
fuadihg thend to change their Vferdid. But 
fioding thtm Men of untradable Reafons ^ 
length di&harged them. Whether his Lord^ 
ihip did not want to be better inftrudted, as 
itiiich as the Jury, the following Extract 
from the Houie of Lords will enable the Rea« 
der to determine.] 

Alid, now I beg Leave to mention th^ 
other Papers inferted in this Cdk£tioii. 
The Coi«s](£i&kATiaNS and th€ 
Reasons were written by a Gentleman, 
whom nothing could deter from Supporting 
the Credit and Liberty of his Country : His 
Style has a ftately Smoothnefe, and he has 
given the Subjefl: the Cdtour it was naturally 
difpos'd to bear i \m Re^oning is fo ftrong, 


The P R E F A C E. 

his Pofitions fo juft, and Conclufions -unde- 
niable, that no Pen but the D r a p i e r's 
could have writ like his. Prometheus is a 
Mafter-Piece; and the' the Liberty and Learn- 
ing of Rome and Athens expired together j yet 
the Genius of poor Ireland arofe when its 
Uberty was almojifety and was refolved to ex^ 
jpire like the Swan, in a Song. 

And, now I muft humbly ask Pardon for 
not inferting the Letters to the Right Honour- 

rable — ^ and the Defence of the ConduSi 

of the People of Ireland^ the firft being not 
of that univcrfal Concern as the other Pa- 
pers are, and the latter the Arguments ufed 
by the Author of the Considerations, done 
by a lefs ingenious Hand, and fet in a worfe 

The Reafon of the Letters appearing 
now in Print, was the Defire of fome inge- 
nious Gentlemen, who, out of Love to their 
Country, and Gratitude to the Memory of the 
JDrapiery have aflbciated themfelves into a 
Club, and call'd it by that Truly Worthy 
Patriot's Name. 


T O T H E 

Shop-Keepers^ Tradefmett, Farmersy 


Common-People of Ireland; 

Conceming The 

Brass Half-Pence 

Coined by Mr. WOOD, 

Wich a D B s I o ^ to have them Pafs in this 

Wherein is (hewn 

The Power of his Patent, the Value of the 
H A t Ft? E N c E, and how far every Perfon may be 
obliged to take the fame in Payments, and how to 
behave in Cafe fuch an Attempt fhould be made by 
W o o D or any other Perfon. 

(Very proper to be tept in every Family.) 

To which are prefix*d the Addrefles of the L o r d s anid 
Commons of /r«/4»i againft the laid Patent. 

To the King's moft Excellent 

M A J E S E Y. 

The Humble Address of the Knights, 
Citizens ai7d Burgeffes, in P(^rlm-' 
ment Affemhled, 

Moft Gracious Sovereign, 

7* h with the utmoji Concern^ 
that We, your Majejlfs tnoji du- 
tiful SubjeSis, the Commons of 
JIreland/^ Parliament ajfem- 
bled, find our /elves indifpenfably 
oblig'dy to reprefent to your Majefiy, our unani- 
mous Opinion: That the Importing and Utter- 
ing (?/ Copper Farthings and Half-Pence, by 
Virtue of the Patent lately granted to William 
Wood, Efq; under the Great Seal of Great Bri- 
tain, ivill be highly prejudicial to your Majejly's 
Revenue, deftruSlive of the Trade and Commerce 

Bx «f 

of tbh Nation, and of the mofl dangerous Cottfe* 
quence to the Propertiesofthe SubjeB. 

We are fully conviMed, from the tender Re- 
gard your Majejiy has always exprefs'd for our 
Welfare and Trofperity, that this Patent could 
not have been obtain! d, had not William Wood, 
and his Accomplices, greatly mifreprefented the, 
State of this Nation to your MajeJly ; // hav- 
ing appear d to us, by Examinations taken in the 
moftfolemn Manner, that tho* the "terms thereof 
bad been JriSlly complfd with, there laould 
have been a Lofs to this Nation of at kaft ifo 
per Cent, by Means of the faid Coinage, and a 
much greater in the Manner the faid Half-Pcncc 
have been coined. 

We likewife beg Leave to inform your Ma- 
jefiy, that the faid William Wood has been guil- 
ty of a moji notorious Fraud and Deceit in coin- 
ing the faid U^M-Vencc, having, under Colour of 
the Powers granted unto him, imported and en- 
deavottt'd to utter great ^antities of different 
Jmpreffions, and of much lefs Weight than was 
requifdby the faid Patent. 

Tour faithful Commons have found, by Ex- 
perience, that the granting the Power or Privi- 
lege of coining Money, or Tokens to pajs for 
Money, to private Perfons, has been highly de- 
trimental to your loyal SubjeSis; and being appre- 
h'enfive, that the vejling fuch Power in any Body 


Politick or CorporatCy or any private Perfon or 
Perjbns wbatfoever^ will be always of dangerous 
Confequence to this Kingdom^ are encouraged^ by 
the repeated Ajfurances your Majejly hath givefi 
us of your Royal Favour and ProteSiiony humbly 
to entreat your Majejly ^ T^hat whenever youjhall 

^hereafter think it neceffary to coin any Farthings 
or Half-Pence, the fame may be made as near the 

. Intfinjtck Value as pofjible^ and that whatever 
Profit Jhall accrue thereby ^ may be applfd to the 
, Publick Service. 

And we do further humbly befeech your 
Majejly y That you will be gracioujly pleajed to 
give fiioh Dir^SiionSy as yoUy in your great Wif 
domy Jhiall think proper y to prevent the fatal Ef-- 
feSis of Uttering any Farthings or Hal^Pencc 
purfuant to thefaid Patent. 

As this Enquiry has proceeded entirely from 
our Love to our Country y fo we cannot omit this 
Opportunity of repeating our unanimous Refolu^ 
tioHy to Jiand by and fupport your Majejly to the 
utmojl of our Power y againji all your. Enemies^ 
both at Home and Abroad ; and of ajuring 
your Majejly y that we wiHy upon every Occafion^ 
give yoiir Majejly and the World y all pojfible 
Demonjlratim of our Zeal and inviolable Duty 
and Aj^eBion to your Majejly' s mojlfacred Perfon 
and Government y and to the Succejfiony as ejla^ 
blijb'd^ in your Royal Houfe. 

B3 To 

To the King's moft Excellent 


The humble Addreft of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal of Ireland, in Parliament 
aflembled, againft William Wo o d. . 

May it pleafe your moft Sacred Majefty, 

I E the Lords Spiritual and temporal 
in Parliament affembled^ are under 
the utmofi Concern to find^ that cur 
Duty to your Majejly and our Coun-- 
treyy indijpenfably calls upon us to acquaint your 
Majejly with the ill ConfequenceSy which will 
inevitably follow from a Patent for coining 
Half-Pence and Farthings to be utter' d in this 
Kingdom^ obtained under the Great Seal of 
Great Britain, by one William Wood, in a clan-- 
dejiine and unprecedented Manner^ and by a 
grofs Mifreprefentation of the Sfate of this King-- 

We are mofl humbly of Opinion^ that the Di- 
minution of your Majejlfs Revenue^ the Ruin of 
cur UradCy and the Impoverijhing of your Peophy 
mujl unavoidably attend this Undertaking ^y and 
we beg heave to objerve to your Majejiyy that 


frm the mojl exaEi Enquiries and Computations 
n&ehave been able to make^ it appears, to us^ that 
the Gain to William Wood w7/^^<?xr^w, ani 
the Lofs to this Kingdom^ by circulating this bafe 
C(nn, greater than this poor Countrey is able to 

With the greateji Submijjion and Deference to 
ytmr Majejlfs Wijdom^ we beg we may pffer it as 
our humble Opinion^ ^hat theReferving the Coin^ 
^«^ ^Half-pence W Farthings /^ the Cvown^ 
and the not intruding it with any private Per/on^ 
Body Politick or CorporatCy will always be for 
your Majefifs Service^ ^ and the Good of your 
People w this l^mg^xtta., 

in Confidence^ Sir^of your Paternal Care of 
the Welfare of j^^ Country ^ we befeechyour Ma- 
jefiyy that you willhepleaid to. extend that Good- 
nefs and CompaJJion to us; which hasfo eminently 
Jhewd itfelf to all your other Subject Sy who have 
the Happinefs to live under your Protection and 
Government ; and that you will give fuch DireSH-- 
ons as may effeBually free us from the terrible 
Apprehenfions we labour under from the Patent 
granted to William Wood. 

B 4 Tq 

To which Addrefs His Majefty ;vas 
pleafed to give the following moft 
gracious Anfwcr, viz. 

George R. 

HIS Majefty is very much concerned to fee^ 
T'hat His Granting the Patent for Coin-' 
ing Half-Pence and Farthings agreeable to the 
PraSiice of His Royal Predecejfors^ has given jo 
much XJneafinefs to the Houfe of Lords : Ana if ^ 
there have been any Mufes committed by the Pa- 
tentee, His Majefty will give the neciffary Or-- 
ders for enquiring into^ andpunijhing thofr Ab-* 
ufes: And will do every ^hing that is in His 
Pov^ery for the Satisfaction of His People^ 


To the Trade/men^ Shop-Keepers^ 
Farmers^ and Common-People iu 
General, of the Kingdom of 

Brethren^ Friends^ Countrymen and FelUm 

H A T I intend now to fay to you* 
is, next to your Duty to God> 
and the Care of your Salvation, of 
the greateft Concern to your 
felves, and your Children 5 your 
Bread and Cloathingy and every common Nccef- 
(ary of Life entitely depend upon it. Therefore 
I do mofl: earncftly exhort you as Men^ as 
CbriJiianSy as Parents^ and as Lovers of yotrr 
Countryy to read this Paper with the utmoflt 
Attention, or get it read to you fc^ others ; 
which that you may do at the lefs Expencc, 1 
have ordered the Printer to fell it at the loweft 


10 ^he Drapier's Letters. 

It is a great Fault among you, that when a 
Pcrfon writes with no other Intention than to do 
you goody you will not be at the Pains to read bis 
Advices : One Copy of this Paper may ferve a 
Dozen of you, which will be left than a Farthing 
a-piece* It is your Folly that you have no com- 
mon or general Intereft in your View, not even 
the Wifeft among you, neither do you know or 
enquire, or care who are yout Friends, or who 
are your Enemies. 

About four Years ago, a little Book was writ- 
ten, to'advife all People to wear the Manu- 
faStures of this our own Dear Country: It had 
no other Defign, faid nothing againft the Kingoc 
Parliament^ or any Ma% yet the Poor Prin- 
ter was profccuted two Years, with theutmoft 
Violence, and even fome Weavers thera- 
felves, for whofe Sake it was written, being upon 
the Jury, Found Him Guilty. This 
would be enough to difcourage any Man from 
endeavouring to do you Good, vvhen you will 
cither negleft him or fly in his Face for his Pains, 
and when he muft expeft only Danger to bim^ 
felf and Lojs of Money ^ perhaps to his Ruin. 

However, I pannot but warn you once more 
of the manifeft Deftruftion before your Eyes, 
if you do not behave your felves as you ought. 

I will therefore firft tell you the plain Story of 
the Fa£i\ and then I will lay before you, how 


LETTER!. ii 

you ought to aSt in common Prudence, and ac- 
cording to the Laws of your Country. 

The Fa£} is tbus^ It having been many Years 
fince Copper Half-Pence or Farthings 
were laft Coined in this Kingdom^ they have 
been for (bme time very fcarce, and many Coun-- 
terfeits paflcd about under the Name of Rji ps : 
Several Applications were made to England^ 
that we might have Liberty to Coin New ones^ 
as in former times we did; but they did not 
fiicceed. At laft one Mr. W o o d ^ mean ordi^ 
nary Man^ a Hard-Ware Dealer^ procured a 
Patent under His Maj e s t y's Broad Se aj. 
to Coin Fourscore. AND Ten Thoit- 
sand. Pounds in Copper for . this '^Kingdom^ 
which Patent however did not oblige any one 
here to take them, unlefs they plcafed. Now 
you muft know, that the H al f-Pe n c e and 
Farthings in England pafc for very little 
more than they are worth. And if youfliould 
'bcatthcm to Pieces, andfeU them to the Brazier, 
you would not lofe abqve a Penny in a/ShiUing* 
But Mr. W o o\D made his Hal ^f-P e n c e of 
{iich Ba/e Metal^ and To much (mailer than the 
Englijh ones, that the Brazier would not give 
you above ^ Penny of good Money for a Shilling 
of his J fothat this Sum of Fourfcjore and T^en 
^boufand Pounds in good Gold and Silver, muft 
be given for Trash that will not be worth 



12 I'he Drap ier's Letters. 
above Eight or Mw^ ^boufand Pounds real 
Value. But this is not the Worft, for Mr. Wood, 
when he pleafes, may by Stealth (end over ano- 
tber and another Four/core and T*en Tboufand 
Poundsy and buy all our Goods for Eleven Parts 
in Tw^/w, under the Value. For Example, if 
a Hatter fells a Dozen of Hats for Five Shillings 
a-piece, which amounts to Three Pounds^ and 
receives the Payment in Mr. Wood's Coin, he 
really receives only the Value of Five Shillings. 

Perhaps you will wonder- how fuch an ordina- 
ry Fellow zs this Mr. Wood could have fo 
much Intereft as to get his M a j e s t y*s Broad 
Seal for fo great a Sum of bad Money, to be fent 
to this Poor Countrey, and that all the Nobility 
and Gentry here could not obtain the (ame Fa- 
vour, and let us make our own Half-Pence^ as 
we ufed to do. Now I will make that Matter 
very Plain. We are at a great Diftancc from the 
King^s Courts and have no body there to folicit 
for us, although a great Number of Lords and 
Squires^ whofe Eflates are here, and are our 
Countrymen, fpend all their Lives and For^ 
tunes there. But this (amc Mr. Wood was 
able to attend conftantly for his own Intereft; he 
is an Englishman and had Great Friends, 
and it feems knew very well where to give Mo^ 
ney^ xo thofe that would fpeak to Others 
that could fpeak to the K i n g and could tell a 


LETTER.! ,3 

FairStory. AndHisMAjESTY, and 
perhaps the great Lord or Lords who advifcd 
him, might think it was for our Countrefs Goodi 
and fo, as the Lawyers exprefi it, the K i ng 
was deceived in his Grant, which often happens 
in all Reigns. And I am fiire if his Majesty 
knew that fuch a Patent, if it fliould take Efleft 
according to the Defire of Mr. Wood, would 
utterly ruin this Kingdom,, which hath given 
fuch great Proofs of its Loyalty y he would im-< 
mediately recall it, and perhaps (hew his DiC- 
pleafureto Some Body^ or Other: But 
a Word to the Wife is enough Moft of you 
muft have heard, with what Anger our Honour^ 
able Houfe of Commons received an Account of 
thi? W o o d's Patent. There were (everal 
Fine Speeches made upon it, and plain Prooft 
that it was all a Wicked Cheat from 
the Bottom to the Tij^, and (everal Smart Votes 
were printed, which, that fame Wo 00 had 
the afliirance to anfwer likewife in Printy and in 
fo confident a Way, as if he were a better Man 
than Our whole Parliament put together. 

This W.ooD, as foon as his Patent was pat 
led, or foon after, (ends over a great many Bar^ 
rels of tbofe Half-Pence, to Cork and other 
Sea-Port TiownSy and to get them ofl^ offered an 
Hundred Pounds in his Coin for Seventy or 
Eighty in Siher : But the Collediors of the 


14 ^i&^ DrAPIEH's LttTTERS. 

King's Cuftoms very honcftly rcfufed to take 
them, and fo did almoft every body elfe. And 
fince the Parliament hath condemned them, 
and defired the K i n g that they might be (top- 
ped, all the Kingdom do abominate them. 

But Wood is ftill working under hand to 
force his Half-Pence upon us, and if he 
can by help of his Friends in England ^itv^al (b 
hx as to get an Order that the Commijjioners and 
ColteBors of the K i n g's Money (hall receive 
them, and that the A rm y is to be paid with 
them, then he thinks bis Workjhallbe done. And 
this is the Difficulty you will be under in fuch a 
Cafe: For the common Soldier when he goes 
to the Market or Ale-houfe will offer this Money, 
and if it be refufcd, perhaps he will S w a g clfc r 
and Hector, and T!hr eaten to Beat the 
Butcher or Ale-Wife^ or take the Goods by 
Force, and throw them the bad Half-Pence. 
In this and the like Cafes, the Shop-Keeper^ or 
ViBualer^ or any other Trade/man has no more 
to do, than to demand ten times the Price of his 
Goods if it is to be paid in Wood's Money, 
for Example, Twenty Pence of that Money for 
A Q.UART OF Ale, and fo in all things eMc, 
and not part with his Goods till he gets the Mo^ 

For fuppofe you go to an A l e-H o us e with 
that bafe Money, and the Landlord gives you a 


LETTER.!. t^ 

Qvxxt for Four of thefe Half-Pence, what 
muft tlic ViStualer do ? His Brewer will not 
be paid in that Coin, or if the Brewer fliould 
be fuch a Fool, the Farmers will not take it from 
them for their Beer^ becaufe they are bound by 
their Leafes to pay their Rents in Good and 
Lawful Money of England^ which this \& not, 
nor of Ireland neither, and the Squire their 
Landlord will never be fo bewitched to take fuch 
^rajh for his Land; fo that it muft certainly 
ftop (bme where or other, and wherever it ftop^ 
it is the (ame thing, and we are al( undone. 

The common weight of thefe Half-Pence 
is between Four and Five to an Ounce -y fuppofe 
Rye, then three Shillings and Four Pence will 
^igh a Pound, and confequently T'wenty SHU 
lings will weigh Six Pounds Butter fFeigbf. 
Now there are many Hundred Farmers who 
pay Two hundred Pound a Year Rent : There- 
fore when one of thefe Farmers comes with his 
Hsdf Year's Rent, which is one Hundred Pound, 
it will be at leaft Six Hundred Pound weighty 
which is Three Horfes Load. 

If a Squire has a mind to come to Town to 
buy Cloaths and Wine and Spices for himfelf and 
Family, or perhaps to pais the Winter here; he 
muft bring with him Five or Six Horfes loaden 
vrith Sacks ^ the Farmers bring their Gorn ; and 
whai his Lady comes in her Coach to our Shops, 

3 ic 

k muft be followed by a Car loaded with 
Mr. Wood's Money. And I hope we (half 
have the Grace to take it £ov no more than it is 

Thcy&y Sq^U IRE Coi9 0Li.Yhsis Sixteen 
^tboufand Pounds a lean now if he fends for his 
Rent to Town, as it is likely be does^ he muft 
have Two Hundred and Fifty Horfes to bring 
qp his Half.Tea/s Rent, and Two or Three 
great Cellars in his Houfe for Stowage. But 
what the Bankers will do I cannot tell For I 
am aflfured, that fome great Bankers keep by 
them Forty I'lboufand Pounds in ready Cafli to 
anfwcr allPayments, which Sum, in Mr. Wood's 
Money, would require Twelve Hundred Hori^ 
to carry it. . 

For my own Part, I am already refolved what 
to do; I have a pretty, good Shop of Irijb Stuffs 
and SiliSy , and inftead of taking Mr. Wo o d's 
bad Copper, I intend to Truck wirii my Neigh- 
bours the Butchers, and Bakers, and Brewers, 
apd the reft. Goods for GoodSy and the little Gdd 
and Silver I have, I will keep by me like my 
Uearfs Blood till better times, or till I am juft 
ready to ftarve, and then I wilLbuy Mr. Wood's 
Money, as my Father did the Brafi Money in 
K.James's Time, who could buy jTw Pound 
of it with a Guinea, and I hope to get as much 
for a Piftole^ and fo purchafe Bread from thofe 
who wiU be fuch Fools as to fell it me. 


L E T^T E R I; if 

Thefc Hal f-P e n c e, if they once palS* 
jivill foon be Co u N t E i^ F E I tJ^ becaufe it may 
fee cheaply done, the Stuff is (b Bafe. The 
Dutch likewife will probably do the fame 
thing, and fend them over to, us td pay for on^f 
Goods \ and Mr. Wo or! wijl, never be at reft 
but coin on t So th?it in fome Yfcars. we (hall havq 
at leaft five Times Fo'utfcore tod Tei> ThQuland 
Pounds of this Lumber. Now the Current 
Money of this Kingdom is not reckoned to be a- 
bove Fouf Hundred Thoufand pounds in all^ ^ncj 
while there \s z Silver Six -Pence left^ chelc 
Blood-Sucre its. will never be quiet*' , 

When once the Kingdom is reduced to fiich $ 
tponditibn^. I wfll tell you what mud be the Epdr 
The Gentknien of Efihtes will all turn c^fF theiif 
tenants for Want of Payment^ bccayfe,' as I 
told you before; the Tenants are obliged by their 
Lcafes to pay Sterlings which is Lawful Current 
Money of England \ then they will turn their 
6v^ Farmers^ As Tpo Maky9F Theiv^ 
Do Alretady, tun ^7// into Sheep where 
they can, keeping only fiich other Cattle a? are 
neceffaryi then they will be their own J^er chants 
and fend ihtitJVool and Butter and Hides aj3i4 
hinnen beyond Sea for ready Money and Wini 
and Spices and Silks. They will keep only a 
fcw.miferablei Cottier i The Farmers muft KoB 
tt Begy at leiye their Countrey. The Shop- keep^ 
its in this and every other Town, muft Break 
G mi 

i8 The Drapi er's Letters. 

and Starve: For it is the Landedman that main- 
tains the Merchant y and ^hop-keeper ^ znAHandi^ 
crafts Man. 

But when the Squire turns Farmer and Mer^ 
chant himfelf, all the good Money he gets front 
abroad, he will hoard up to fend for England^ 
and keep (bme poor Taylor or Weaver and the 
like in his own Houfe, who Will be glad to get 
Bread at any Rate. 

I fliould never have done, if I Were to tell you 
all the Miferies that we (hall ufidergo if we be fo 
Foolijh and JVicked as to take this Cursed 
C o Y N. It would be very hard, if all Ireland 
fliould be put into One Scale^ and thhforry FeU 
low Wood into the other ^ that Mr.WooD 
(hould weigh down thi% nvhole Kit^domy by 
which England gets above a Million of good 
Money every Year clear into their Pockets^ and 
that is more than the Englijh do by all the World 

But your great Comfort is, that, as his Ma- 
jest y's Patent does not oblige you to take this 
Money, Co the Laws have not given the Crtnvn a 
Powcf of forcing the SubjeBsixy t^t what Mo^ 
7?^ the K I N G pleafes: For then by the fame 
Reafon we might be bound to takcf Pebble- 
Stones or Cockle-jhellsy or Stamped Leather 
for Current Coin, if ever we fliould happen to live 
under an ill Prince, who might likewife by 


LETTER!. 19 

the fame Power make a Guinea paS for ten 
Pounds, a Shilling for Twenty Shillings, and fo' 
6ri, by Which he would in a fliort Time get all 
the Siher and Gold of the Kingdom into his 
oiwn Hands, and leave us nothing but Brafs or 
Leather or what he plcafed. Neither is any 
Thing reckoned more Cruel or OppreJJive in the 
French Government than their common Pra£tice 
of calling in all their Money after they havcf 
funk it very low, ,. and then coining it a-new at 
a much higher Value, which however is not the 
Thou&ndth V^vt fo wicked, as this abominable 
ProjeSl of Mr. Wood. For the French give their 
Subjefts Siher for Siher ^ and Gold for Gold i 
but this Fellow will not fo .much as give us good 
Brafi of Coffer Cot our Gold and Silver^ nor 
even a Twelfth Part of their Worth. 

Having faid this much, I will now. ^d on to 
tell you the Judgments of fome great iLawycrs \d 
this Matter, whom 1 fce'd on purpofe for your- 
Sakes, and got xhdi Opinions under their Hands^ 
that I might be fure I went upon good Grounds. 

:^ Famous Law-Book caird the Mirrour of 
Juftice, difcourjing of the Af^ticles (or Laws) or^ 
dainedhyour Ancient Kings,- declares the Law to 
be as ftitows: It was ordained thai no King cf 
this Realm Jloould Change, Impair or Amend the 
Money or make any other Money than of Go\A or 
Silver without the AJfcnt of all the Counties^ 

G » thai 

ao 7*^^ D rapier's Letters. 

that is, as my LoM Coke (ays* without the Af^ 
Jent of Parliament. 

This Book is very Ancient, and of great Au- 
thority for the Time in which it was wrote, and 
with that Charadcr is often quoted by that greae 
Lawyer my Lord Coke f . By the Laws of £fg^«- 
land^ fevcral Metals arc divided into Lawful 
or true Metal and unlawful or falfe Metal-, the 
Former comprehends Silver or Gold^ the Latter 
all Bafer Metals : That the Former is only to 
pafs in Payments appears by an KSt of Parlia^ 
tnent\ made the Twentieth Year of Edward the 
Firft, called the Statute concerning the PaJJin^ qf 
' Pence, whiclj I give you here as I got it cranf-> 
lated into Englijh ; forfome of our Laws at that 
Time were, as I am told, writ in Latin : Whoever 
in Buying or Selling prefumeth to refufe an Halfl^ 
penny or Farjhing of Lawful ^Money, bearing the 
Stamp which it ought to have, let him befeized 
• on as a Contemner of the King*s Majefly^ andcafi 
to Prifon. 

By this Statute, no Perfonis to be reckoned a 
Contemner of the King's Majejly, and for that 
Crime to be committed to Prifon ; but he who 
rcfbfcs to accept the King's Coin made of Law-^ 
ful Metal, by which, as I obferv'd before, Silver 
and Gold only are intended. 

* 2 Infi, 57(^* t ^ ^^fi' S7<5- 7« t * ^fi* 577- 


L E T T E R I. 21 

That this is the trae ConJirugHon of the ^B^ 
(ippears not only from the plain Meaning of the 
Words, but from my Lord Coke\ * Obferva- 
don upon it. By this A61 (fays he) it appears, 
that no Subje£t can be forc'd to take in Buying or 
Selling or other Payments^ any Money made 
but of Lawful Metal-, that is, oi Silver ot Gold. 

The Law of England gives the King all Mines 
of Gold and Silver^ but not the Mines of other 
Metals I the Reafon of which Prerogative' or 
Power ^ as it is given f by my Lord Coke^ is be- 
caufe Money can be made oiGold^sA Silver^ but 
not of other Metals. 

Purfiiant to this Opinion Half-pence and Far-^ 
things were anciently made of Silver^ which \s 
more evident firom the Aft of Parliament of 
Henry the IVth. Chap. 4, by which it is enafted 
as follows: Item^ for the great Scarcity that is 
ctprefent within the Realm of England of Half-- 
fence and Farthings of Silver, it is ordained and 
eftablijhedthat the third Part of all the Money 
of Silver Plate which Jhall be brought to the Bullion, 
Jhattbe made in Half-pence and Farthings. "This 
fhews that by the Words Half-penny and Farthing 
of Lawful Mmey tn that Statute concerning the 
Pajpng of Pence, is meant afmallCoinin Half* 
pence and Farthings of Silver. 

♦ Z /»/?. 577. t » ^»y^' 577- 

C 3 . This 

%z ^he Drai^ier's Letters./ 

This is further manifeft from the Statute of 
the Ninth Year of Edward the Hid. Chap 3 . 
which ena£ts, ^hat no Sterling Half-penny or 
Farthing be Molten for to make Vejfe\ or any 
other thing by the Gold-fmitbSy nor others, upon 
Forfeiture of the Money yj molten (or malted) 

By another Aft in this King's Reign^ Blacf:^ 
Money was not to be current in England, znd 
by an kOt made in the Eleventh Year of his. 
Reign Chap. 5. Galley Halfpence were not to 
pafe : What kind of Coin thcfe were I do iigc 
icnow, but I prefume they were made of Bajb^ 
Metal, and that thefe Afts were no New Ld^s^ 
but further Declaraticwis of the old Laws xdzz^ 
ingto the Coin. 

Thus the Law ftands in Relation to Coiny nOr 
;$ there any Example to the contrary, except one 
in Davis*s Reports, who tells us, that in the 
jtime of 7'yrone's Rebellion ^een Elizabeth 0F7 
dered Money of mixt Metal to be coined in tfac 
Tower .of London^ and fent over hither for ^aj-^ 
mentofthc^r/w[y, obliging all People to receive 
;t and Commanding that all Silver Money 1haoi4 
be taken only as Built tm, • that is, for as much as 
it weighed. Davis tells us fcveral Particulaf? m 
phis Matter too long here to trouble you with, 
3.ndthst the Privy Council o£ this Kingdom o\> 

LETTER.!. ^3 

ligcd a Merchant in England co receive this mixt 
Money for Goods craiiimittcd hither. 

Bjit this Proceeding is rejeded by all the bed 
Lawyers as contrary to Law, the Privy Council 
here haying no fiich Power. And befidcs it is . 
f q be confidered, that the §lueen was then under 
great Difficulties by a Rebellion in this Kingdom 
afllfted from Spain^ and whatever is done in 
g^eat Exigences and Dangerous Tinies fliould 
never be aij Example to proceed by in Seafons 
oi Peace and ^ietnefs. 

I will now, my Dear Friends, to (aye you the 
Trouble^ fet before you in fliort, what the Law 
obliges you to do, and what it does not oblige 
you to. 

Firft, you arc obliged to take all Money in Pay- 
ments which is coin'd by the King and is of the 
Englijh Standard or Weight, provided it be of 
Gold or Silver. 

Secondly, you are not oblig'd to take any 
JMoney which is not of Gold or Silver, not only 
^Half-pence or Fart kings of England or of any 
other Country J and it is only for Convenience, 
or Eafe, that you arc content to take them, be- 
caufe the Cuftqm of coining Silver Halfpence 
and FartbingshsLth long been left off, I will fup- 
pofe on Account of their being fubjed to be 


C 4 Thirdly, 

^4 y^^^ DrAPIER-S.L ETTERt. 

Thirdly, much left arc wc obliged to take 
jthofe Vile Half -pence of that (amc Wo ojc^ by 
yhich you muft lofc almoft Elcvcn-Pcncc in c^ 
yery Shilling. 

Therefore, my Friends, ftand to it One and 
All, rcforc this Filthy If ajh: It is noTreafon to 
rebel againft Mn Wood, His Majefiy in his 
iPatent obliges no body to take x\xd[cHalf'pence i 
put Gracious Princehath no (b ill Advifers about 
kim ; or if he had, yet you fee the Laws have 
not left it in the X/»/s Power, to force us to take 
^ny Coin but what is Lawful, of right Standard, 
pold knd Silver-, therefore you have nothing 
to fear. 

And let me in the next Place apply my felf par^ 
ficularly to you who are the poor fort of ^raiefr 
'men: Perhaps you may think you will not be fo 
great Lofers a$ the Rich, if thefe Half-pence 
ftiould paG, becaufe you fcidom fee any Siher^ 
^nd your Gujiomers come to your Sbe^ or Stalls 
ywrith nothing but Brafs, whicli you likewifc find 
fiard to be got ; but you may take my Word, 
whenever this Money gains Footing among you, 
you^ will be utterly undone; if you carry diefi^ 
Half-pence to a Shop for l^obacco or Brandy^ oij 
any other Thing yoii virant, the Shop-keeper will 
|dyance his Goods accordingly, or elfe he muft 

L E t T E R. I. zy 

break and leave the Key under the Door. Do 
you think I willfeUyou a Yard of Tenpenny Stuff 
for twenty of Mr. W o o d's Half-pence ? No, 
not under Two Hundred at leaft, neither will 
I be at the Troubk of counting, but weigh them 
in a Lump. I will tell you one Thing further, 
that if Mr. Wo o d's Projeft fliould take, it will 
ruin even our Beggars: For when I give a Beggar 
ail Half-penny, it will quench his Thirft, or go n 
a good way to fill his Belly j but the Twelfth Part 
of a Half-penny will do him no more ferviccthan 
if I fliould give him Three Pins out of my 

Injhort thofe Half-Pence are like /A^accuried 
Thing, 'which as the Scripture tellsuSy the Children 
of Ifrael were forbidden to touchy they will run a^ 
bout like the Plague and dejlroy every one who lays 
fns Hands upon them. I have beard Scholars talk 
pj a Man who told a King that he had invented 
a way to torment People by putting them into a 
Bull ofBrafs with Fir^ under ity but the Prince 
put the Projeftor frjl into his own Brazen Bull to 
make the Experiment ; this very much refembles 
the ProjeSt of Mr. Wood; and the like of this 
may pojjibly be Mr. W o o d '5 Fate^ that the Brafi 
be contrived to torment this Kingdom with^ may 
frove his own T^orment^ and his DeJiruSlion 

N. B. 

2(5 72^^ Dr API En's Letters. 

j^. B. ThcAuthorofthisPapcrisinfbrm'dby 
Pcrfons who have made it their Bufinefs to be exa^ 
in their Obfervations on the true Value of thcfc 
Half-Pence, thatanyPerfonmaycxpcato get 
a Quart of Twopenny Ale for Thirty Six of 

I defirc all Pcrfons m^y keep this Paper carefully 
by them to rcfrefh their Memories whenever they 
(hall have farther Notice of Mr. Woo d's Halt- 
pence or any other the like Impofture. 



T O 

Mr, HORDING the Printer, 

Upon Occafion of a 


I N H I S 

Ne W3-Paper, 

of ^uguft I, 1724, 

Relating to 

Mn fFood's HALF-PENCE. 

Tq which is prefixed the Report of the 
Honourable the Privy-Council, 
being the Foundation of Mr. Hard i n g'x 


The Report of the Committee of 
the Lords of his Majefty's moft 
Honourable Privy-Council, in re- 
lation to Mr. /Vood's Half-Pence 
and Farthings, @*f. 

At the Council -Chamber at Wkteball^ die 
T wcnty-Fourth Day of ^^^Z)', 1724. 

IN Obedience to your Majejlfs Order ofRe^ 
ferencey upon the fever al Refoliaions and 
Addrejfes ofhttb Houfes of Parliament ^Ircland^ 
during their late SeJ/ion^ the late Addrefs of your 
Majejlfs JuJliceSy and Privy Council of that 
Kingdom J and the Petitions of the County and 
City of Dublin, concerning a Patent granted by 
your Majejly to William Wood, JS/y; for the 
Coining andUttering Copper Halfpence andFar^ 
things in the Kingdom ^/'Ireland, tofucb Perfons 
as would voluntarily accept the fame i and upon 
the Petition oftbefaid William Wood, concern^ 
ingtbefame Coinage^ the Lords of the Committee 
have taken into their Confideration the faid Patent^ 
AddreffeSy Petitions^ and all Matters and Papers 
relating thereto^ and have heard and examined 
aUfucb Perfons^ as^ upon due and fufficitnt No^ 



tice^ wer^ dejrous and witting to be heard upcti 
the SubjeSi Matter under their Conjideration^ and 
bave agreed uponthe following Reporty containing 
a true State of the whole Matter^ as it appeared 
before thentj with their humble Opinion^ to be 
laid before your Majejly for your Royal Conju- 
deration and Determination^ upon a Matter of 
Jucb Importance. 

^be fever al Addrejfes to your Majejly ftom 
your SubjeSfs ^Ireland, contain in general ^erms 
tbejlrongejl Reprefentatiom of the great Appre^ 
benficms they were under ^ from the Importing 
find Uttering Copper Half-^pence and Farthings 
in Ireland, by Virtue of the Patent granted f& 
Mr. Wood, which they conceived would prove 
highly prejudicial to your Majejlfs Revenue^ de^ 
jlruSUve of the Tirade and Commerce of the King- 
domy and of dangerous Confequence to the Proper^ 
ties of the SubjeSt. They reprefent^ T^hat the 
Patent bad been obtained in aclandefiine and un^ 
precedented Manner^ and by Notorious Mifre-- 
prefentations of the State of Ireland ; T'hat if the 
T'erms of the Patent had been complfd withy this 
Xloindge would have been of infinite Lofs to the 
Kingdomy but that the PatenteCy under Colour 
if the Powers granted to himy had Imported and 
endeavoured to Utter great ^antities cf different 
ImpreJJionSy and of lefs Weighty than required fy 
the Patent^ and bad been guUty of notoriom 



t 31 ) 
Frauds imd Deceit in Coining the f aid Copper 
Money: And they humbly befeechyour Majefiy^ 
that you would give fuch DireBions^ as in your 
great Wifdom youjhould think proper^ to prevent 
the fatal EffeSis of Uttering any Halfpence or 
Fhrtbings by Virtue of the faid Patent : And 
the Houfe of Commons g^Ireland, in afecond Ad-- 
drefs upon this SubjeSi^ Prayy That your Ma/ejiy 
would be pleafed to give Dirediions to the fever al 
Officers intrufied in the Receipt of your Majejifs 
Revenue^ That they do not on any Pretence what-- 
ever^ receive or utter any of the faid Copper 
Halfpence or Farthings. 

In Anfwer to the Addreffes of the Houfes of 
Parliament £/* Ireland, your Majefy was tnoft 
Gracioufly pleafed to affure them^ " That if any 
" Abufes had been committed by the Patentee^ 
" Tou would give the neceffary Orders for En- 
^^ quiring into and punijhing thofe Abufes \, and 
" that your Majefty would do every thing that 
** was in your Power, for the Satisfaction of 
" your People. 

Inpurfuance of this your Majejifs mojl Gra- 
cioUs Declaration^ your Majejly was pleafed to , 
take this Matter into your Royal Conf deration -, 
and that you might be the better enabled ejfeBually 
to anfwer the ExpeSlations of your People ofltc-^ 
knd, your Majejly was pleafed by a Letter from 
LordC^xz&^ct^ one of your principal Secretaries of 


( 3^ ) 
iStatiy Dated March ic, 1723-4, to fgniff 
ytmr Pleafure to your Lord Lieutenant of Ire- 
land, " I'bat bejhouldghe DireBiom fir fend^ 
** ingoverfucb Paper i and Witnsjfes asjhould be 
" thought proper tofupport the ObjeElions made 
*' againjl the Patent^ and againfi the Patentee^ 
^ in the Execution of the Powers given him by 
^ the Patent. 

Upon the Receipt of ibefe your Majejifs Or^ 
dersy the Lord Lieut, by his Letter of the xotb 
^ March, 1713-4, reprefented the great DiJH^ 
culty he found himfelf under^ to comply with thefe 
your Majejlfs Orders \ and by another Letter of 
the x^b of Mareh,^ 1713-4,* " after confubing 
^ the principal Members of both Hmfes^ wb9 
*' were immediately in your Majejlfs Service^ 
^ and of the Pri*uy Council^* acquainted youf 
Majejly^ " ^^^* ^^^^ ^f *^^^ woiild take upoti 
*' them to advife^ how any material Perfons or 
" Papers might be fent over oh this OccaRoni but 
** tbey aUfeem'd apprebenfive of the ill Temper 
^ any Mifcarriage, in a Tryal^ upon Scire Facias 
^ brought againft the Patentee^ might occafion in 
^ both HouJeSy if the Evidence were not laid as 
^ full before a Jury^ as it was before them^^ and 
didtherefore^ afecondTime^ decline finding over 
any Perfons^ Papers or Materials whatjhvery fo 
fupport this Charge brought againjl your Majejlft 
Patent and the Patentee. 


( 33 ) 
j4s this Froceedingfeenid "very extraor dinar y^ 
that in a Matter that had raijed Jo great and 
univerfal a Clamour in Ireland, no one Ferfm 
could be prevailed upon to come over from Ire- 
land, in Support of the United Senfe of both 
Houfes of Parliament ^ Ireland j That no Pa^ 
perSy no Materials^ no Evidence whatfocver of 
the Mifchiefs arifing from this Patent, or cf the 
notorious Frauds and Deceit committed in the 
Execution of it, could now be hady to give your 
Majejly SatisfaSiion herein j " Tour Majefy 
" howevery defirous to give your People of Ire- 
*' hnd all pojjible SatisfaStion, but fenfible that 
** you cannot in any Cafe proceed againji any of 
^' the meaneji of your SubjeBs, but according to 
" the known Rules and Maxims of Law and 
*' y^ft^^^^' repeated your Orders to your Lord 
Lieutenant of Ireland, that by Perfuafon and 
making proper Allowances for their Expences, 
new Endeavours might be ufed to procure and 
fend over fuch Witneffes as Jhould be thought ma^ 
terial to fnake gdod the Charge again/} the Pa^ 

In Anfui)er to thefe Orders^ the Lord Lieute- 
nant of Ireland acquaints your Majejiy^ by his 
Letter of the X3d ^Aprjl to one of your princir 
pal Secretaries of State^ ^^ That in Order to obey 
^ your Majejlfs Commands as far as pojjtbly he 
^ couldy at a Meeting, with the Lord Chancellor, 

P • the 

( 34 ) 
'* the Chief Judges, your Majcfty's Attorney and 
*' Solicitor General, he had earnefily defired their 
« Advice and Affijlance^ to enable him to fend 
« overfuchWitneJei as might be necejfary tofup- 
" port the Charge againji Mr. Wood'i Patent, 
** and the Execution of it : The Refult of this 
*' Meeting was fuch, that the Lord Lieutenant 
« could not reap the leaf Advantage or Aftfance 
*' from it, every one being fo guarded with cau- 
«' tion, agair^ giving any Advice or Opinion in 
" this Matter of State, apprehending great Dan- 
" ger to themfelves from meddling in it. 

the Lords of the Committee think it very 
ftrange, that there jhould be fuch great Difficul- 
ty in prevailing with Perfons, who had already 
given their Evidence before the Parliament of 
Ireland, to come over and give the fame Evi- 
dence here, and efpecially, that the chief Diffi- 
culty jhould arife, from a general Apprehenfion 
of a Mifcarriage, in an Enquiry before your Ma- 
jefy, or in a proceeding by due Courfe of Law, 
in a Cafe, where both Houfes of Parliament had 
declared tbemfelvesfofully convinced andfatisfied^ 
upon Evidence and Examinations taken in the 
mojifokmn Manner. 

At the fame time that your Majeftyfent your 

Orders to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to fend 

over fuch Evidences as were thought material to 

fupport tk Charge againji the Patent, that your 


( 3y ) 

Majejiy mighty without any further Lofs ofl'me 
that was abjhlutely necejfary^ be as full informed 
as was pqffible^ and that the Abufes and Frauds 
aUedged to be committed by the Pacentec, in exe- 
ctfting the Powers granted to him^ might be fully 
and ftriSlly enquired intOy and examined^ your 
Majejiy was pleafed to order that an AJfay 
Jhould be made of the FinenefSy Value^ and 
Weight of this Copper Money ^ and the Goodnefs 
thereof compared with the former Coinages of 
Copper Money for Ireland, and the Copper Mo- 
ney coined in your Majejifs Mint in England ; 
and it was accordingly referred to Sir Ifaac 
Newton, Edward Southwell, and ]o\ii\ Scrope> 
Efq^y to make thefaid AJfay and Tryal. 

By the Reports made of this AJfay y which are 
hereunto annexed^ it appears^ " T!hat the Pix oj^ 
*^ the Copper Monies coined at Bfiftol by Mr. 
** Vfood for Ireland, containing the Tryal Pieces^ 
** which wasfealed and locked up at the ^ime of 
" Coiningy was ope7ied at your Majejifs Mint at 
*^ the Tower 'y 7'hat /i6^ Comptroller's Account cf 
^ the ^antities of Halfpence and Farthings 
" coinedy agreed with Mr. Wood'i Accounty a- 
" mounting to 59 T^ms^ 3 Hundredy i garter ^ 
^* II Pounds y and 4 Ounces \ That by the Sped- 
** mens of this CoinagCy which had from time to 
^ time been taken from the feveral parcels coined 
** andfeakd up in Papers^ and put into the Pix, 
D 2 « 60 

( 3<J I 
^ (Jo Half-pence weighed 14 Ounces Trcy^ and 
"18 Penny-Weighty which is about a quarter 
^ of an Ounce above one Pound-Weight Aver^ 
^^ dupois', and 30 Farthings weighed 3 Ounces 
^^ and 3 quarters of an Ounce Trcy^ and 46 
^* Grains^ which is alfo above the Weight r^- 
*' quired by the Patent. It alfo appears^ that 
^ both Halfpence and Farthings when heated 
«* redhotfpread thin under the Hammer without 
" cracking ; that the Copper of which Mr. Wood'i 
" Coinage is made^ is of the fame Goodnefs and 
" Value with the Copper of which the Capper 
" Money is coined in your Majejlfs Mint for 
" England, and worth in the Market about 15 
" Pence per Pound-Weight Averdupois\ Hhat a 
" Pound of Copper wrought into Bars or Fillets^ 
" and made fit for Coinage^ before brought inf a 
" the Mint at the Tower of hoTi^on^ is worth iZ 
** Pence per Pounds and always cofi as mucb^ 
^ and is coined into 13 Pence of Copper Money 
" by Hale^ for England. It likewife appears^ 
^ that the Halfpence and Farthings coined by 
" Mr. Wood, when compared with the Copper 
*^ Money coined for Ireland, in the Reigns of 
t* King Charles 11. King James II. and King 
*^ .William and ^een Mary, confiderably exceeds 
" them all in Weighty very far exceeds them all 
" in Goodnefsy Finenefsy and Value of the Cop^ 
*^ per^ none of them bearing the Firefowfll^ not. 

\ being 

t 37 ) 
^^ heing malleable^ wafting very much in the Fire^ 
^^ and great part of them burning into Cinder of 
^ little or no Value at all \ Specimens of all wbicb^ 
^< as likewife of Mr. Wood'i Capper Money upon 
*^ Tryals and AJfays made by Sir Haac Newton, 
*^ Mr. Southwell, and Mr. Scrope, were laid be- 
i*' forethis Committee for their Iisformation. 

^be hords of the Committee beg leave upon 
this Article of the Complaint^ ^hat notorious 
Frauds and lyeceits had been committed by the 
Patentee^ in executing the Powers granted bim^ 
to obferve to your Majefty^ T'hat this is a Fa^ 
expre/ly charged upon the Patentee^ andifit had 
in any Manner been proved^ it might have ena^ 
bled your Majefty^ by due Courfe of Law^ to 
have given the SatisfaSlion to your People of 
Ireland^ that has beenfo much infifted upon \ but 
as it is now above four Months Jince your Ma-^ 
jefty was pleafed to fend over to Ireland for ftdch 
Evidence^ m fnight prove a FaB alledgedtokt 
fo notorious^ and no Evidence at all has been as 
yet tranfmitted^ nor the leaft ExpeSiation given 
of any that may hereafter be obtained^ and the 
Tryats and AJfays that have been taken of the 
Halfpence^ and Farthings coined by Mr. Wood 
proving fo unqueftionably the Weighty Goodnefs 
and Finenefsof the Copper Money coined^ rather 
exceeding the conditims of the Patent ^ than being 
any way defeSiive^ the Lords- of the Committee 
D 3 cannot 


cannot advtfe your Miqefiy^ by a Writ of Scire 
Facias^ or any other Manner to endeavour va^ 
eating the /aid Patent j when there is no Proba-- 
bility offuccefs infucb an Undertaking. 

As thefe T'ryals and AJfays fully Jhew that the 
Patentee hath aSled fairly according to the T'erms 
and Conditions of his Patent^ fo they evidently 
prove j^ that the Care and Caution made ufe of in 
this Patent^ by proper Conditions^ Checks^ and 
Comptrolesj have effeSiually provided^ that the 
Copper-Money coined for Ireland by virtue of this 
Patent^ Jhould far exceed the like Coinages for 
Ireland, in the Reigns of your Majejlfs Royal 

And that your Majejlfs Royal Predecejfors 
have exercifed this undoubted Prerogative of 
granting to private Perfons the Power and Pri^ 
allege of coining Copper Half-pence and Far^ 
things for the Kingdom ©/ Ireland, was proved 
to this Committee by feveral Precedents of fuch 
Patents granted to private Perfons by King 
Charles II. and King James II. none of which 
were equally beneficial to your Kingdom of Ire- 
land, norfo well guarded with proper Covenants 
and Conditions for the due Execution of the Powd- 
ers thereby granted^ altho' the Power and Vali- 
dity of tkofe Patents and a due Compliance with 
them^ was never in any one Injiance, till this 
timey difputed or controverted. 


( 39 ) 

By tbefe former PatentSy the file Povfer of 
coining Copper Money for Ireland, was granted 
to the Patentees for the T'erm ofzi Years, to be 
coined infuch Place as they pould think conveni^ 
enty and fuch Quantities as they could conve- 
niently iflue within the Term of x r Years, with- 
out any ReJlri£iion of the ^antity to he coined 
within the whole T'erniy or any Provifon of a 
certain ^antity ; only to he coined annually ^ to 
prevent the ill Confequences of too great a Quan- 
tity to he poured in at once^ at the Will and Plea* 
fure of the Patentees ; ?to provifon was made 
for the Goodnefs and Finenefs of the Copper -y no 
Comptroller appointed to inJpeSi the Copper in 
Bars and Fillets hefore coinedy and take conjlant 
Afjays of the Money when coined \ and the power 
ofijfuing not limited to fuch as would voluntari- 
ly accept the (ame ; hut hy the Patent granted to 
John Knox, the Money coined hy Virtue of that 
Patent y is made and declared to be the current 
Coin of the Kingdom of Ireland, and a Pound 
Weight of Copper was allowed to he coined into z 
Shillings and 8 Pence, and whaten)er ^antity 
Jhouldhe coinedy a Rent of i6L per Annum only 
was referved to the Crowny and 700 T^ons of 
Copper were computed to he coined within 21 
TearSy without any Complaint. 

The Term granted to Mr. Wood for coining 

Copper Money is for Fourteen Tears onlyy the 

D 4 Sluantity 

( 40) 
^antity for the whole Term limited to 3<Jo 
I'ons^ loo I'un only to be ijjued within one Tear 
and 20 I'ons each Tear for the Thirteen remain^ 
ing Tears 'y a Comptroller is appointed by the Au- 
thority of the Crown to injpeSl^ comptrol^ and 
ajfay the Copper^ as well not coined as coined, 
the Copper to be fine Bricifli Copper ^ caft into Bars 
or FilletSy which when heated red hot would 
fpread thin under the Hammer*, a Tound-Wei^ht 
to be coined into Two Shillings and Six Pence, 
and without any Compulfion or Currency in- 
forced, to be received by fuch only as would 
voluntarily and wilfullyaccept the fame; a Rent 
of Zoo L per Annum is referred .unto your Ma^ 
jefty^ and lOO /. per Annum to your Majeftfs 
'Clerk Comptr oiler y to be paid annually by the 
Patentee^ for the full Term oj the Fourteen Tears ^ 
which for Thirteen Tears^ when 20 Tens ofCop^ 
per only are foinedy is not inconfideraile. Thefe 
great and ejfential Differences in the fever al Pa- 
'tentSy that have been granted for coining Coffer 
Money for the Kingdom ofliddLwd^feemedJuff- 
ciently to jufiify the Care and Caution that was 
ufed in granting the Letters Patent to Mr. Wood. 
It has been further reprefented to your Ma^ 
jefiy^ That thefe Letters Patent were obtained by 
Mr. Wood in a clandejline and unprecedented 
Manner y and by grofs Mifreprefentations of the 
State of the Kingdom of Ireland. Upon enquiring 


(41 ) 
into this'FaSi it appears^ Tthat the Petition of 
Mr. Wood for obtaining this Coinage^ was pre^ 
fented to your Majejly at the Time thatfeveral 
other Petitions and Applications were made to 
your Majejly, for the fame Purpofe, by fundry 
PerfonSy well acquainted and converfant with 
the Affairs of Ireland, fitting forth the great 
Want of fmall Money and Change in all the com^ 
mm and lower Parts of Traffick and Bufnefs 
throughout the Kingdom ; and the Terms of Mr. 
WoodV Petition feeming to your Majefiy mofi 
reafonable, thereupon a Draught of a Warrant 
direSting a Grant offuch Coinage to be made to 
Mr. Wood, was then referred to your Majeflfs 
then Attorney and Solicitor General g/* England, 
to confider and report their Opinion to your Ma- 
jejly: Sir Ifaac Newton, as the Committee is in-^ 
Jormedy was conjulted in all the Steps cf fettling 
and adjufing the Terms and Conditions of the 
Patent ; ajid after mature Deliberation^ your 
Majejlfs Warrant was figrid^ dire£iing an In^ 
denture infuch Manner as is pra£iifed in your 
Majefys Mint in the Tower of London^ for the 
Coining of Chid and Silver Monies y to pafs the 
Great Seal of Great Britain, which was carried 
through all the ufual Forms and Offices without 
Hajleor Precipitation : That the Committee canr 
not difcover the leajl Pretence tofay^ this Patent 
Wfs pafs'd (fr obtaineii in a clandejiine or unpre^ 


(4^ ) 
cedented Manner^ unlefs it is to be underfiood^ 
that your Majeftfs granting a Liberty of Coin-- 
ing Copper Money for Ireland, under the Great 
Seal of Gve2it Britain, without referring the Con^ 
f deration thereof to the principal Officers g^' Ire- 
land, is the Grievance and Mifchief complained 
of Upon this Head it mujl be admitted^ that 
Letters Patent under the Great Seal of Greats 
Britain for coining Copper Money for Ireland, 
are Legal and Obligatory^ a jujl and reafonable 
Exercife of your Majejifs Royal Prerogative, 
and in no Manner derogatory^ or invafve^ of any 
Liberties or Privileges of your Subjects of Itchnd. 
When any Matter or Thing is tranfaSling that 
concerns or may affeSl your Kingdom ^Ireland, 
if your Majejiy has any Doubts concerning the 
fame^ orfeesjuf CaufeforconJideringyourOf- 
j&w ^Ireland; your Majejiy is frequently pleafed 
to refer fuch Confiderations to your chief Gover^ 
nours ij/* Ireland, but the Lords of the Committee 
hope it will not be afferted^ that any legal Orders 
or Refolutions of your Majefty can or ought to be 
called in ^efion or invalidated^ becaufe the 
Advice or Confent of your chief Governors of that 
Kingdom was not previoujly had upon them : The 
Precedents are many y wherein Cafes of great Im^ 
portance to Ireland, and that immediately affeSt^ 
edtbe Interefts of that Kingdom, Warrants^ Or-- 
ders, and Dire6lions, by the Authority of your 



( 43 ) 
Majejly and your Royal Predecejfors^ have been 
ijfued under the Royal Sign Manual^ without 
any previous Reference or Advice of your Officers 
^Ireland, which have always had their due 
ForcCy and have been punBually comply* d with 
and obeyed. And as it cannot he dijputed but 
this Patent might legally and properly pafs un- 
der the Great Seal of Great-Britain, fo their 
Lordjhips cannot find any Precedents of References 
to the Officers of Ireland, of what pajfed under 
the Great Seal of England ; on the contrary^ 
there are Precedents of Patents pajfed under the 
Great Seal of Ireland, where in all the previous 
StepSy the References were made to the Officers 
g/* England. 

By the Mifreprefentation of the State of Ire- 
land, in order to obtain this Patent, it is prefu- 
med, is meant, 7'hat the Information given to 
your Majejly of the great Want of f mall Money ^ 
to make Jmall Payments, was groundlefs, and that 
there is nofuch Want offmall Money, fhe Lords 
of the Committee enquired very particularly into 
this Article, and Mr.Yf oodi produced feveral 
Witnejjes, that direSily afferted the great^Want 
of J mall Money for Change, and the great Da-- 
mage that Retaillers and ManufaSiurers fuffered 
for Want offuch Copper Money. Evidence was 
given, T'hat confiderable ManufaSiurers have 
been obliged to give Tallies or tokens in Cards, 


( 44) 
to their Workmen for Want of fmall Money ^ 
Jigned upon the Back^ to be afterwards exchange 
edfor larger Money : That a Pr«nium was oft- 
^ given to obtain fmall Money for necejfary Oc- 
xafions : Several Letters from Ireland to Corref- 
fondents in Erghnd were ready complaining of 
the want of Copper Money ^ and exprejjing the 
great Demand there was for this Money. 

The great want of fmall Money was further 
proved by the common Ufe of Raps, a counter^ 
feit Coin offuch bafe Mettal^ that what pajfes 
for a Halfpenny y is not worth half a Farthings 
which Raps appeared to have obtained a Cur^ 
rency out of NeceJJity and for want of better 
fmall Money to make Change with ; and by the 
bejl Accounts^ the Lords of the Committee have 
Rtafon to believe^ 77>at there can be no doubt ^ 
that there is a real Want of fmall Money in Ire- 
land, which feems to be fo far admitted on all 
HandSy tl^t there does not appear to have been 
any Mifreprefentation of the State of Ireland /« 
this ReJpeB. 

iMtbefecondAddrefs from the HoufeofCom^ 
mons to your Majefiy^ T'bey moft humbly befeech 
your Majejiy^ that you will be graciot^y pleafed 
to give DireStions to thefeveral Officers infrt^ed 
mth the Receipt of your Majejlfs Revenue^ that 
they do not on any Pretence whatfoever^ receive 
or utter fuch Halfpence or Farthings^ and Mr. 


Wood in ins Petition to your Majefiyy complainfy 
that the Officers of your Majeftfs Revenue had 
already given fuch Orders to all the inferior Of- 
ficers not to receive any of this Cain. 

Tour Majejly^ by your Patent under the Great 
jS^j/o/* Great Britain, Willsy Requires and Com^ 
mands your " Lieutenant^ Deputy ^ or other 
" Chief Governour or Govemours of your King-' 
" dom ^Ireland, andallotUct Officers and Mi- 
" niftcrs of your Majefty, your Heirs and Suc^ 
" cejjors in England, Ireland or eljewhere^ to be 
" aiding and affifting to the faid William Wood, 
" his Executor Sy &c. in the Execution of all or 
" any the Powers^ Authorities^ DireSiions^ Mat^ 
" ters or Things to he executed by Hm or them^ 
" or for his or their Benefit and Advantage^ by 
" Virtue^ and in Purfuance of the faid Inden^ 
" tur^Sy in all 'Things as becomethy &c" And if 
the Officers of the Revenue have^ upon their own 
Authority y given any Orders^ Dire^ions, Signi^ 
ficatims^ or Intimations^ to hinder or obfiruSt the 
receiving and utterit^ the Copper Money coined 
and import edy purfuant to your Majefifs Letters 
Patent^ this cannot but be looked upon as a very 
extraordinary Proceeeding. 

In another Paragraph of the Patent your Ma^ 

jefiy has covenanted and granted unto the faid 

William Wood, his Executors^ &c. *' That upon 

^^performance of Covenants^ on bis and their 

^ Parts, 

(48 ) 
iut iufi and reafonahk^ tbatyolir Majejiy Jhould 
immediately fend Orders to your CommiJJicmers 
pf the Revenue^ and all other your Officers in 
Ireland, to revoke all Orders^ DireBionSy Sig- 
nificationSy or Intimations wbatfoever^ that may 
have been given by tbem^ or any of tbemy to 
Under or obJiruB the receiving and uttering 
this Copper Money ^ and that tbe HalJ-^pence and 
Farthings already coined by Mr. Wood, amount- 
ing to about 17000/. andfuch further ^antity as 
fiall make up tbe f aid 17000 /. to 40000 /. ^^ be 
^ fuffered and permitted without any Lett^ 
" Suity T'roublCy Moleflationy or Denial of any 
** of your Maieftfs Officers or Minivers what-* 
^ foevery to Pafsy and be received as Current 
^ Money by fuch asjhall be willing to receive 
^ the fame.'* Jt tbe fame timCy it may be ad^ 
vifablefor your Maiejiyy to give tbe proper Or-- 
derSy that Mr. Wood Jhall not coiny import 
into Ireland, utter or difpofe of any more Copper 
Half 'pence or FarthingSy than to the Amount if 
40000 1. according to his own Propofaly witb^ 
out your Majeffsfpecial Licence or Authority ^ 
to be bad for that Purpofei and if yuor Ma-* 
jejly Jhall be pleafed to Ordery that Mr. Wood'j 
Propofaly delivered to the Lords of the Commit-' 
teey Jhall be tranjmtted to your Majeffs Chief 
Govemour^ Deputiesy or other your Mniffers^ 

( 49 ) 

or Officeriin Ireland, // will give them a proper 
Opportunity to conjider^ Whether^ after the Re^ 
duSlion of ^60 'Tons of Copper^ being in value 
100800 1. to 142 Tons^ ly Hundred^ 16 Poujtds 
being in Value 40,000 /, onl)\ any thing can be 
done for the further Satisfaction of the People of 

Let TER to Mr. Harding the 
Printer, upon Occafion of a Para- 
graph in his News-Paper of Augufi 
I, 1724, relating to Mn Wood's 

N your News-Lcttcr of the Firfl: 
Inftant there is a Paragraph Da- 
ted from London^ July xfth, 
relating to WochT^ Half-pencc; 
whereby it is plain, what I fore»- 
told in my Letter to the Shop-keepers^ &c. that 
this vile Fellow would never be at Reft, and that 
the Danger of our Ruin approaches nearer, and 
therefore the Kingdom requires New and 
Fresh Warning; however I take that Para- 
graph to be, in a great Meafure, an Impofition 
upon the Publick, at leaft I hope fb, becaufe I 
am informed that PTood is generally his own 
News-Writer. I cannot but obferve from thac 
Paragraph that this Publick Enemy of ours, not 
fatisfied to Ruin us with his Trafli, takes every 


L E "r t iE R it. yi 

OfecaKkitt td tfeat ih\s Kingdom with fckc iitmoft 
Contcittpt. He Riprdcnts Several of bur Mer^ 
thanti nnd traders upon Examination before a 
Committee of^i Council), agreeing thdi there was 
the tttmoft NeceJityofCopper-Mone^here^ befofi 
Ms Patenty fo thatfeveral Gentlenten have beefi 
forced to Taff^ivith their Workmen^ and ^ve 
ihem Bits of Cards Sealed and Subfcribed %ith 
their Names. What then? If a Phyficianj pi-e- 
fcribe to a Patient i Dram of Phyfick, (hall d 
Rafcal ApotheearyCramKimwithaJP(?i^;ft/, ahd 
mix it up with Ptrjftm? And is not a Landlord's 
Hand and Seal to his bwn Labourers a better 
Security for Five or Teti Shillings^ thato Wood'i 
Btafi Seven Timfes below the Real Value, can b(S 
to the kingdom J for ah Hundred and Fbui? 
Thou(ahd Pounds? 

But who are thefe Merchants and Traders of 
^ Ireland thzt thake this Report of the utmoji I^e^ 
vejjity we are under of Copper Mohey^ They ard 
only a few Betrayers of their Country, Gdnfe- 
tleratesi with Wood^ from whom they are to purs. 
chafe a great Quantity df his Coin, perhaps at 
half Value, and vend it among us to the Ruin of 
the Publick, and their own private Advatitage; 
Are not thefe excdleht Witniefles, upon whofe 
Infegrity the Fare of a Kingdom muft dependj 
Who are Evidences in their ovvh CaUfe^ arid Sha- 
icfs in this Work of Iniquity? 

Ex If 

51 ^he Drap I er's Letters. 

If wc could have deferved the Liberty of Coin- 
ing for our felves, as we formerly did, (and why 
we have not is every Body's Wonder as well as 
mine) Ten Thousand Pounds might have been 
Coined here in Dublin of only one Fifth below 
the Intrinfick Value, and this Sum, with the 
Stock of Half-pence we then had, would have 
been fufficient : But Wood by his Emiflaries, E- 
jiemies to God and this Kingdom, hath taken 
Care to Buy up as many of our old Half-pence 
as he could, and from thence the prefent Want 
of Change arifes 3 to remove which, by Mr, 
Wood's Remedy, would be, to Cure a Scratch 
on the Finger by Cutting off the Arm. But 
fuppofing there were not one Farthing of Change 
in the whole Nation, I will maintain, that Five 
and Twenty Thoufand Pounds would be a Sum 
fiilly fufficient to anfwer all our Occafions. I 
am no inconfiderable Shop-Keeper in this Town, 
I have difcourfed with feveral of my own and o- 
ther Trades, with many Gentlemen both of City 
and Country, and alfo with great Numbers of 
Farmers, Cottagers, and Labourers, who all a- 
gree that two Shillings in Change for every Fa- 
mily would be more than neceflary in all Deal* 
ings. Now by the largeft Computation (even 
before that grievous Difcouragement oiAgricul-- 
tiire^ which hath fo much leffened our Numbers) 
the Souls in this Kingdom are computed to be 



One Million and a half, which, allowing but Six 
to a Family, makes Two hundred and Fifty 
thoufend Families, and confequently Two Shil- 
lings to each Family will amount only to Five and 
Twenty thoufand Pounds, whereas this Honeji 
Liberal Hard-ware^Man Wood, would impofe 
upon us above Four T'imes that Sum. 

Your Paragraph relates further, that Sir Ifaac 
Newton Reported an ^Jay taken at the bowery 
of Wood's Mctzly by which it appears, thzt Wood 
bad in all refpeSls performed his Contra£l. His 
Contradi With whom? Was it with the Par- 
liament or People of Ireland? Are not they to 
be the Purchafers? But they deteft, abhor, and 
rejed it, as Corrupt, Fraudulent, mingled with 
Dirt and Trafli. Upon which he grows Angry, 
goes to Law, and will impofe his Goods upon 
us by Force- 
But your News*Letter (ays that an AJfay was 
made of the Coin. How impudent and infup- 
portable is this ? Wood takes Care to Coin a 
Dozen or Two Half-pence of good Metal, fends 
them to the T*ower and they are approved, and 
thefe muft anfwer all that he hath already Coin- 
ed or (hall Coin for the future. It is true in- 
deed, that a Gentleman often fends to my Shop 
for a PatternoiSxM^y I cut it fairly off, and if he 
likes it, he comes or fends and compares the 
Pattern with the whole Piece, and probably we 
E 3 come 

f4 916^Drapier's Letters, 

come to a Bargain. But if I were to buy v% 
Hundred Sheep^ and the Grazier fliould bring 
me one fingle Weather fiit and well Fleeced by 
Way of Pattern^ and expeft the feme Priqo 
round for the whole Hundred, without fufF^g 
me to fee them before he was p^yed, or giving 
pie good Security to reftore my Money for thoftj 
that were L^^tn ox Shorn or Scabhy^ I would be; 
none of his Cuftomer. I have heard of a Mar^ 
who had a Mind to (ell his tkufe, and therefore^ 
carried a Piece of Brick in his Pocket, which hei 
fhewed as a. Pattern to aicourage Purchafers y 
And this is diredly the Cafe in Point with Mr. 

The next Part of the Pars^aph contains Mr. 
Wood's voluntary Propolals for freventin^ any^, 
future ObjeBioni or Afprebenfiom. 

His Firft Proposal is, that ivhereas be bath aU, 
ready Coined Seventeen thoufand Pounds^ and has 
Copper prepared to make it up Forty thoufand 
Poundsy he will heqontentto Coinnomre^ unlefs 
Fty though bis Patent empowers, him to Coin a, 
far greater ^antity. 

To which if I were to Anfwer it fliould be 
thus: Let Mr. Wood ancj: his Crew of Founders^ 
and ^ink(rs Cdn on till there is not aa old Kec- 
tfc left in the Kingdom ; let thpm Coin dd Lea-, 
tber^ TobaccQrpip^ Cky, or thp Dirt in the 


L E T T E R n. 55 

StrcctSy and call their Trumpety by what Name 
they plieafe from a Guinea to a Farthing, we arc 
not under any Concern to know how he and his 
Tribe or Accomplices think fit to employ them- 
felves. But I hope and truft, that we are all to a 
Man fully determined to have nothing to do with 
him or his Ware, 

The King has given him a Patent to Coin 
Half-pence, but hath not obliged us to take 
them, and I have already (hewn in my Letter to 
the Shop-keepers^ &c. that the Law hath not left 
it in the Power of the Prerogative to compel 
the Subjeft to take any Money, befide Gold 
and Silver of the Right Sterling and Stand- 

Wcod further propofes, (if I underftand him 
right, for his Expreflions are Dubious) that ke 
'will ndt Coin above Forty ^houfand Pounds un- 
lefs The Exigences of Trade require it: 
Firfl:, I obferve that this Sum of Forty ^houfand 
Pounds is atmoft double to what I proved to be 
fnfficient for the whole Kingdom, although 
we had riot one erf* our old Half-pence left. Again 
I ask, who is to be Judge when the Exigences 
oif Trade require it? Without doubt he 
means himfelf, for as to us of this poor Kingdom, 
who muft be utterly Ruined if his Projeft (hould 
focceed, we were never Once confulred till the 
Matter Was over, and he will Judge of our Exi- 


^6 T&e Drapier's Letters. 

GENCTTs by his own ; neither will thcfe be ever at 
an End till he and his Accomplices will think 
they have enough : And it now appears that he 
will not be content with all our Gold and Silver, 
but intends to Buy up our Goods and Manu- 
fadures with the (amc Coin. 

I fliall not enter into Examination of the Pri- 
ces for which he now propofes to fell his Half- 
pence or what he calls his Copper, by the Pound ; 
I have faid enough of it in my former Letter, 
and it hath likewife been confidered by others. 
It is certain that by his own firft Computation, 
we were to pay Three Shillings for what was 
intrinfically worth but One, although it had 
been of the true Weight and Standard for which 
he pretended to have Contraded ; but there is Co 
great a Difference both in Weight and Badnefi 
in fcvcral of his Coins, that fome of them have 
been Nine in Ten below the Intrinfick Value, 
and moft of them Six or Seven. 

His lafl: Propofal being of a peculiar Strain and 
Nature, dcferves t^ be very particularly confi- 
der'd, both on Account of the Matter and the 
Style. . It is as follows. 

. Lajtly, in Conjideratton of the direful Appre-- 

hcnfom ^d-bich prevail in ' Ireland, that Mr. 

Wood idHI by fucb Coinage draiti them of their 

Gold and Sihcr^ be propofes to take their Manu- 

figures in exchaiige^ and that no Perfon be Qb- 



LiGED to receive more than Five-pence Half- 
fenny at one Payment. 

Firft, Obferve this little Impudent flT^r^-w^r^- 
Man turning into ridicule the Direful Apprehen^ 
Jions of a whole Kingdom^ priding himfelf as 
the Caufe of them, and daring to prefcribe what 
no King of England ever attempted, how far a 
whole Nation (hall be obliged to take his Brafe 
Coin. And he has Rcafon to Infult 5 for fiire 
there was never an Example in Hiftory, of a. 
great Kingdom kept in Awe for above a Year in 
daily Dread of utter Deftrudion, not by a pow- 
erful Invader at the Head of Twenty thoufimd 
Men, not by a Plague or a Famine, not by a 
Tyrannical Prince (for we never had one more 
Gracious) or a corrupt Adminiftration, but by 
one fingle. Diminutive, InGgnificant, Mecha- 

But to go on. To remove our Direful 
Apprehensions that he will Drain us of our 
Gold and Silver by his Coinage^ this little Arbi- 
trary Mock 'Monarch moft Gracioufly offers to 
take our ManufaSiures in Exchange. Are our Irijlj 
Underftandings indeed fo low in his Opinion ? 
Is not this the very Mifcry we compkdn ofr 
That his curfed Projcd will put us under the 
Neceffity of felling our Goods for what is equal 
to Nothing. How would fuch a Propo(al Sound 
from France or Spain^ or any other Country wc 


58 T'beDKAtinK^s Lfirf ers. 

deal with^ if they ihould oficr to deal with us 
only upon this Condition^ that we (hould take 
dieir Money at Ten Times higher than the m-^ 
trinfick Value i Does Mr. ff^cod think, for In- 
ibnce, that we will (ell him a Stone of Wool 
for a Parcel of his Counters not worth Six^Peme, 
when we can fend it to England and receive as 
many Shillings in Gold and Silver? Surely there 
was never heard (iich a Compound of Impu^ 
dence, Villany and Folly, 

His Propofek Conclude with perfeft High- 
^reafon. He promifes, that no Perfon (hall be 
Obliged to receive more than Five-pence Hatf* 
penny of his Coin in one Payment : By which ic 
is plain, that he pretaids to Oblige every Sub* 
jed in ,this Kingdom to take fo much in every 
Paynrait, if it be offered; whereas his Patent 
Obliges no Man, nor can the Prerogative by Law 
daim fuch a Power, as I have often obfcrved; 
fo that here Mr. ^t?^^ takes upon him the Entire 
Jjgijlaturey and an abfblt^e Dominion over the 
Properties of the whole Nation* 

Good God! Who are this Wretch's A^-^ 
fers? Who arc Hs Supporters^ jibbettorSy JS»- 
couragersy oc Sharers? lAx.Woodv9^\ Obligh 
me to take Five-pence Half-penny of his Brafs in 
every Payment. And I will Shoot Mr. Wood 
and his Deputies through the Head, like Higb^ 
noay-Men or Bmfe^break^Sy if they 4^re to 


L E T T E R 11. ^^ 

fcrce one Farthing of their Coin upon me in the 
Payment of an Hundred Pounds. It is no Lofi 
of Honour to fubmit to the Lhn ; but who, 
with the Figure of a Man can think with Pa- 
tience of being Devoured alive by a Rat? He 
has laid a Tax upon the People of Ireland^ 
Seventeen Shillings at lead: in the Pound ; a Tax, 
I fay, not only upon Lands, but Intereft-Monqr, 
Goods, Manufaftur^, the Hire of Handicraft^, 
men, Labourers and Servants. Shop-Keepers, 
look to your felvcs. Wood will oblige and fcffce 
you to mke Five-pence Half-penny of his Trafli 
in every Payment, and many of you receive 
Twenty, Thirty, Forty, Payments in one Day, 
fHT dfe you can hardly find Bread: And pray con« 
fider how much that will ^nount to in a Year; 
Twenty Times Five-pence Half-penny is Nine 
Shiltings and Two^pcnce, which is above an 
Hundred and Sixty Pounds a Year, vih&ceci 
you voll be Lopfers of at lead: One hundred and 
Forty Pounds by taking your Payments in his 
Money. If any of you be concent to Deal with 
Mr, Wood on fuch Conditions, they may* But 
for my own Particular, Let bis Money perijh 
with bim. If the Famous Mr. Hambden rather 
chofe to go to Pri(bn,. than pay a few Shillings 
to King CharJes L without Authority of Parlia^* 
nient; I will rather chufe to be Ha^ed thaa 
hav^ all my Subftancc Ta?ccd at Seventeen Shil- 

6o 7'be Dkavii.k's Letters. 

lings in the Pound, at the Arbitrary Will and 
Pleafureof the Venerable Mr. Wood. 

The Paragraph Concludes thus. N. B. (that 
is to fay Nota hfrn^ or Mark well) No Evidence 
appeared from Ireland or elfewbere^ to prove the 
Mi/chiefs complained of or any Abufes wbatjth 
ever committed in the Execution of the fend 

The Impudence of this Remark exceeds all 
that went before. Firft, the Houfe of Com- 
mons in Ireland^ which Reprefents the whole 
People of the Kingdom ; and Secondly the Pri- 
vy Council, Addrefled his Majefly againll thefe 
Half-pence. What could be done more to ex- 
prefs the Univerfal Senfe and Opinion of the 
Nation? If his Copper were Diamonds, and 
the Kingdom were intirely againft it, would not 
That be fufficient to rejed it ? Muft a Commit- 
tee of the Houfe of Commons, and our whole 
Privy Council go over to Argue Fro and Con with 
Mr. Wood? To what End did the King give his 
Patent for Coining of Half-pence in Ireland? 
Was it not, becaufe it was reprefentcd to his 
Sacred Majefty, that fuch a Coinage would be 
of Advantage to the Good of this Kingdom, and 
of all his Subjefts here ? It is to the Patentee's 
Peril if his Reprefentation be falfe, and the Exe- 
aition of his Patfent be Fraudulent and Corrupt. 
Is he fo Wicked and Foolifh to think that his 


L E T T E R IL 6i 

Patent was given him to Ruin a Million and a 
Half of People, that he might be a Gainer of 
Three or Fourfcore Thoufand Pounds to him- 
felf ? Before he was at the Charge of Pafling 
a Patent, much more of Raking up fo much 
Filthy Drofi, and Stamping it with his Maje- 
fly's Image and Superfcription^ fliould he not 
firft in common Senfe, in common Equity^ 
and conimon Manners, have Confulted the 
principal Party., concerned; that is to (ay, the 
People of the Kingdom, the Houfe of Lords 
or Cornmons, or the Privy Council? If any 
Foreigner fliould ask us, wbofe Image and Sii- 
perfcription there is on Wood's Coyn, we fliould 
be afliamed to tell him^ it was Cafars. In that 
great Want of Copper Half-pence, which he 
alledges we were,, Our City fet up our Cafars 
Stature in Excellent Copper , at an Expence 
that is Equal in Value to Thirty thou&nd 
Pounds of his Coin; and we will not receive 
his Image in worfe Metal. 

I obferve many of your People putting a Me- 
lancholly Cafe on this Subjed. It \^ true lay. 
they, we are all undone if Wood's Half- pence- 
muft pafi ; but what fliall we do^ if his Majefty 
puts out a Proclamation commanding us to 
take them? This has been often dinned in my. 
Ears. But I defire. iny Country-men to be af- 
fured that there is nothing in it. The King ne- 

6t ^he Drapier's LEt^ERs. 

Ver Mucs out a Proctamatim but to cnjoyn 
what the Law permits him. He will not Iflitc 
but a Proclamatitm agaihft Lawy or if Rtch a 
thing (hould happen by a Miftake, we are no 
more obliged to obey it than to run our Head^ 
into the Fire. Befides, his M^fty will never 
command us by a Proclamatitm^ what he docs 
not offer to command us in the Patent it fdfe 
There he Icaveis it to our Difcretion, fo that 
our DfeftruSion muft be intirely owing to oat 
(elves. Therefore let no Man be afr^d.of a Pro^ 
clamatiotty which vdll never be granted; and if 
it (hould, yet upon this Occafion, wiH be of nd 
Force. The King's Revenues here are near 
Four Hundred Thoufand Pounds a Year, cari 
you think his Minifters will Advife him to take 
them in Woo^s Bra6, which will reduce thd 
Value to Fifty thoufand Pounds. England gjcts 
a Million Sterl. by this Nation, which, if this 
Projed goes on, will be almoft reduced to no- 
thing: And do you think thofe who Live in 
England upon Iri^ Eftatcs will be content to 
take an Eighth or a Tenth Part, by being payed' 
in Woods Drofs. 

If Wood and his Confederates were not con-^ 
vincedofour Smpidity, they never would havd 
attempted (b Audacious an Enterprise. Hd 
now fees a Spirit hath been raifed againft him^ 
and he only watches till it begins to Flag, he 
3 goes 

LETTER. H. €^ 

goes about warding when to devour us. He 
hopes we (hall be weary of contending with 
hun, and at laft out of Ignorance, or Fear, or 
of being perfefUy tyred with Opposition, we 
ihall be forced to Yield. And therefore I ccxi- 
ie(s it is my chief Endeavour to keep up yovHC 
Spirits and Reicntments. If I tell you there is 
a Precipice under you, and that if you go for-* 
wards you will certainly break your Necks. If 
I point to it before your Eyes, muft I be at the 
Trouble of repeating it every Morning? Are our 
People's Hearts waxed gro/sf Are fbeir Eart 
duU of bearing, and have they clofed their Eyest 
I fear there are fome few Vipers among us, who, 
for Ten or Twenty Pounds Gain, woukL fell 
their Souls and their Country, though at laft 
it would end in their own Ruin as well as Ours. 
Be not like the Deaf Adder ^ who refufes to hear 
the Voice of the Charmer^ charm hf never fo 

Though my Letter be directed to you, Mir. 
Bardingj yet I intend it for all my Countrymen. 
I have no Intereft in this Affair but what k 
common to die Publick; I can live better than 
tnany others, I have fome Gold and Silver by 
me, and a Shop well furniflied, and fiiall be 
able to make a Shift when many c£ my Betters 
wc Starving. But I am grieved to fee the 


64' ^be Drap ier*s L ett;ers. 

Coldnds and Indifference of many People with 
whom I difcourfe. Some are afraid of a Pro-- 
clamatiofiy others ihrug up their Shoulders, and 
cry, what would you have us to do? Some give 
out, there is no Danger at all. Others are 
xomforted that it will be a common Calamity 
and they (hall fare no worfe than their Neigh- 
bours. Will a Man, who hears Midnight-Rob- 
bers at his Door, get out of Bed, and raife his 
Family for a common Defence, and (hall a whole 
Kingdom lie in a Lethargy, while Mr. Wood 
comes at the Head of his Confederates to rob 
them of all they have , to ruin us and our Po- 
fterity for ever? If an High- way-man meets you 
on the Road, you give him your Money to fave 
your Life 5 but, God be thanked, Mr. Wood 
cannot touch a Hair of your Heads. You have 
all the Laws of God and Man on your fide. 
When he or his Accomplices offer you his Drols, 
it is but faying Noy and you are Safe. If a Mad- 
man (hould come to my Shop with a Hand- 
ful of Dirt raked out of the Kennel, and offer 
it in payment for Ten Yards of Stuff*, I would 
Pity or Laugh at him, or, if his Behaviour 
deferved it, kick him out of my Doors, And 
if Mr. Wood comes to demand any Gold or Sil- 
ver, or Commodities for which I have pay- 
ed my Gold and Silver, in Exchange for 


L E T T E R IL 6^ 

Kis Traih, can he deferve or exped better 

When the Evil Day is come (if it muft come) 
kt us mark and obferve thofe who prefumc to 
olfa: thefe Half-pence in Payment. Let their 
Names and Trades, and Places of Abode be 
made publick^ that every one may be aware 
df themj as Betrayers of their Country, and 
Confederates with Mr. Wood. Let them be 
watched at Markf^ts and Fairs, and let the 
firft honefl Difcoyerer give the Word about, 
that Wood's Half-pence have been c^ered, and 
caution the poor innocent People not to receive 

Perhaps I have been too tedious; but there 
would never be an End, if I attempt to fey 
all that this melancholly Subjed will bear, I 
will Conclude with humbly offering one 
Propofal, which if it were put in Pradice^ 
would blow up this deftrudive Projed at once. 
Let fome Skilful Judicious Pen draw up an 
Advertisement to the following Purpofe* 

Whereas oneVf'\\\izvciVfo(A Hard^'Ware-Man^ 
tiffw or lately fojourning in the City £/* London, 
bath , by many Mifreprefentations^ procured a 
Patent for cdining an hundred and forty thou-- 
fand Pounds in Copper Half -pence for this 
Kingdom^ which is a Sum five %imes greater 

F than 


than our Occajiom require. And whereas it is 
notdrious that the Jaid Wood hath coyned bis 
Half-pence offuch hafe Metal andfalje ff^eighty 
that they are^ at leajl^ Jix Parts in /even below 
the real Value. And whereas we have Reafon 
to apprehend^ that the /aid ^006. may^ at any 
^ime hereafter y clandefinely coyn as many more 
Half-pence as hepleafes. And whereas the f aid 
Patent neither doth nor can oblige hi^ Majejiy\ 
^ubjeSls to receive the faid Half -pence in any 
Payment^ but leases it to their voluntary Choice^ 
becau/iy by Law the SubjeSt cannot be obliged 
to take any Money except Gold or Silver. And 
whereas contrary to the Letter and Meaning of 
the faid Patenty the faid Wood hath declared 
that every PerfdnJhaU be obliged to take Five-- 
pence Halfpenny of bis Coin in every Payment. 
And whereas the Houfe of Commons and Privy^ 
Council have fever ally addrejfed bis moji Jhcred 
Majejly reprefenting the ill Confequences which 
the faid Coinage may have upon this Kingdom. 
And lajilyy whereas it is univerfally agreedy that 
the whole Nation to a Man (except Mr. Wood 
and his Confederates) are in the utmoji Appre^ 
henfions of the Ruinous ConfequenceSy that mu/i 
follow from the faid Coinage, therefore we 
whofe Names are underwritteny being Perjbns of 
confderable EJiates in this Kingdomy and Re-- 
fders therein^ do unanimoufly refolve and declare 


• L E T T E Jl IL 6y 

ihdt we will never recerje^ one Fartjoing 
or Half-penny of the [aid WoodV Coymng^ 
and that we will direiJ all our I'enants to 
refufe the [aid Coyn from any Perfcn what- 
foever\ of which that they may not he igno- 
rant^ we ha*be fent them a Copy of this Adver- 
tifcmcnt, to he read to them by our Stewards 
Receivers^ &c. 

•I- could wi(h, that a Paper of this Nature 
might be drawn up, and figned by two or 
three hundred principal Gentlemen of this 
Kingdom, and printed Copies thereof fent to 
their feveral Tenants; I am deceived, i£ any 
thing could (boner defeat this execrable Defign 
of Wood and his Accomplices, This would im- 
tncdiately give the Alarm, and fet the Kingdom! 
on their Guard. This would give Courage to 
the meaneft Tenant and Cottager. How long ^ 
O Lordy righteous And true . 

I muft tell you in paiticular, Mr. Harding^ 
that you ire much to blame. Several hundred 
t^erfons have enquired at your Houfe for my 
Letter to the Shop-Keepers^ &cc. and you had 
none to fell them. Pray keep your (elf pro- 
vided with that Letter and with this; you have 
got very well by the former , but I did not 
then write for your Sake, any more than I do 
how. Pray Adverti(c both in every News- 
F 1 Paper, 

68 ^he Drap I er's Letters. 

Paper, and let it not be your Fault or Mine ' 
if our Country-Men will not take Warning. 
I defire you likewife to Sell them as Cheap as 
you can. 

/ am your Servant y 

Aug. 4. 1724. 





U P O N A 




O F 

The moft Honourable the Privy-Council in 
England relating to Wo o d's Half-pence. 





Some Obfervations upon a Paper, 
call'd, the Report of theCoM* 
MiTTEE of the mod Honourable 
the Prkjy-Cofdncil in England, 
relating to Wood's Half-pence. 

^0 the Nobility and Gentry of the Kingdom 
of Ireland. 

A V I N G already written l!nvo Let-- 

ters to People of my own Level, and 

Condition; and having now very 

preffing Occafionfor writing a T^^/r^/j 

I thought I could not more properly Addrefi 

it than to Tour Lordjhips and JVorJhips. 

The Occafion is this. A printed Paper was 
ient to mc on the i8th Inftant, Entitled, A 
Report of the Committee of the Lords 
His Majesty's mojl Honourable Privy 
Council in England, relating to Mr. Wood's 
Half-Pence and Farthings. There is no 
F 4 Mention 

y% The Drapier's Letters. 

Mention made where the Paper was printed, 
but I fuppofe it to have been in Dublin^ and 
I have been told that the Copy d'd not ccmie 
over in the Gazette^ but in the London Journal^ 
or fome other Print of no Authority or Con^ 
fequence; and for any thing that Legally ap^ 
pears to the contrary, it may be a Contrivance 
to Fright us, or a ProjeB of fome Printer^ 
who hath a Mind to make a Penny by Pub* 
lifliing fomething upon a Subjed, which now 
employs all our Thoughts in this Kingdom. 
Mr. Wood in publiftiing this Paper would 
infinuate to the World, as if the Committee had 
a greater Concern for his Credit and Private 
Emolument, than for the Honour of the Privy^ 
Council and both Houfes of Parliament Here, 
^d for the Quiet and Welfare of this whole 
Kingdom : For it feems intended as a Vindica* 
tion of Mr. Wood not without feveraU fevere 
Remarks on the Houfes of Lords and Com^ 
pions of Ireland. 

The whple is indeed written with the Turn 
and Air of a Pamphlet, as if it were a Difputc 
between William Wood on the one Part, 
and the L^^rds yujiices^ Privy-^Council zad Both 
Houjis of Parliament on the other; the Defign 
qf it being to Clear and Vindicate the Injured 
Rcpijtarioja pf William Wood, and to Charge 


L E T T E R in. 73- 

the other Side with aJling Rafli and Ground-- 
lc(s Afpcrfions upon hinu 

' But if it be really what the Title imports 
Mr. Wood hath treated the Committeb 
with great Rudencfs, by Publifliingan Aft of 
Theirs in fo unbecoming a Manner, without 
their Leave, and before it was communicated 
to the Government and Privy-Council of Ireland^ 
to whom the Committee advifed that it (hould 
be tranfinitted. But with all Deference be it 
(polcen, I do not conceive that a Report of a 
Committee of the Council in England^ is fff- 
tberto a Law in either Kingdom ; and until any 
Point is determined to be a Law, it remains 
difputable by every Subjeft. 

This (May it pleafe your Lord/hips and Wor^ 
Jhips) may feem a ftfangp Way of difcourfing 
in an Illiterate Shop-Keeper. I have endeavour- 
ed (although without the Help of Books) to 
improve that fmall Portion of Reafon which 
God hath pleafed to give me, and when Rea- 
fon plainly appears before me, I cannot turn 
away my Head from it. Thus for Inftancc, 
if any Lawyer (hould tell me thatfuch a Point 
were Law, from which many Grofi Palpable 
Abfordities muft follow, I would not, I could 
not believe him. If Sir Edward Coke (hould 
-pofitivcly afTert (which he no where does, but 
the dircft contrary) that a Limited Prince^ 


74 ^be D rapier's Letters. 

ctould by his Prerogative ofadigp his Subjefib to 
take half an Ounce, of Lead, ftamped with 
His Image, for Twenty Shillings in Gold, I 
flimild Swear he was deceived or a Deceiver^ 
bccaufe a Power like that, would leave the 
whole Lives and Fortunes of the People en-^ 
tirely at the Mercy c^ the Monarch: Yet this, 
in Efled, is what Wood hath advanced in (^ip^ 
of his Papefs^ an4 what fu{picious People may 
pofTibly apprehend from (bme jPaflages in tha); 
wbidiis called the Report. 

That Paper mentions Such Perfom to have 
heen Examined^ ^bo were Dcfirous and WiV- 
liiig to be beard upon tbflt SubjeSi. I am told^ 
they were four in all, Golebyy BrowUy Mr. Finley 
the Banker, and one mcxc wbofe Name I know 
iK)t. The firft of thefe was tryed for Rob- 
bing the Treafury ip Ireland', and althougjb be 
were acquitted for want of Legal Proof, yet 
every Perfon in the Court believed him to be 
-Guilty. The fccond was tryed fof a Rape^ 
and ftands .Recorded in the Votes of the Houfc 
of Commons, fcw: endeavouring by Perjifry and 
Subornation y to ta^e away the Life of Ji^n 
Bingbamy Efq; 

Bat fince I have gone Co far as to mention 
particuUr Perfons, it may be fome Satisfadion 
to jcnow who is this Woop, himfelf, that has 
the Honour to have a whole Kingdom at Hfe 


L E T T E R IIL ^ ys 

Kfcncy^ fbc aknoft Two Years together. I find 
he is' ill the Patent Entitled, Eff, although he 
were underftood tobe only a HardrWare^Many 
and fo I have been bold to call him in my for^ 
mcr Letters; howevet a 'iS^^/W he is, not raly 
by Virtue- df his Patent, but by having been a 
eotte(3k>r in Shropjhire^ whpre ptetending to 
have been Rdbbed, and fuing the County, he 
was Caft, and for the Infamy oftheFa<a:, loft 
his rEmployment. 

I have heard another Story of thfe 'Squire 
Woody from a very honourable Lady,' That one 
Hamilton told her. He (Hamihon) was knt 
for Six Years ago by Sir Ifdac Newton to Try 
the Coyriage of 7our Men, who then foKcitcd 
a Patent for Coining Half-pence for Ireland % 
their Names were fTocdy Cefler^ Ellijlon^ and 
Parker. Tarker made the faircft Offer, and 
fVood the worfl:, for his Coin were Three HaW^ 
pence in a Pound le(s Value than the pthcn 
By. which it \s plain with what Intentions he 
folieitcd this Patent, but not fo plain how he 
obtisiined it. 

It IS alledged in the faid Paper, called the 
Report ^ that upon repeated Orders fix^m a Se- 
cretary of State, for fending over fuch Papers 
and WimclTes, as fliould be thought proper to 
Support the Objcdions made againft the Patent 
thy both Houfes oi Parliament) xkx^ Jjord Lieu^ 
' tenant 

jS 7^^DiiAPiEx*s Letters. 

tenant Reprcfaited ^be great Difficulty he found 
bimfeifin to comply with tbefe Orders. I'bat 
Ttone oftbe Principal Members of Both Houfes, 
who were in tbe King's Service or Council^ would 
taie upon tbemto advife bow any Material Per^ 
Jon or Papers might be fent over on this Occa^ 
Jimij &C. And this is often Repeated and Repre- 
fented as a Proceeding tbatfeems very Extra^ 
crdinary^ and that in a Matter which bad rai^ 
fed fo great a Clamour ^'/^ Ireland , m me 
Perfon could be prevailed upon to come over from 
Ireland, in Support of the United Senfe of both 
Houfes (f Parliament w Ireland; efpecially that 
the chief Difficulty Jbould arifefrom a General 
Apprehenfim of a Mifcarriage^ in an Enquiry 
before his Majejly^ or in a Proceeding by due 
Courfe ofLaw^ in a Cafe where both Houfes <f 
Parliament had declared themfelves Jo fully con^ 
vincedy and fatisfied upon Evidence^ and Exa^ 
minations taken in the mofi Solemn Manner. 

How (hall I, a poor Ignorant Shq)-Kccpcr, 
utterly unskiird in Law, be able to anfwer (b 
weighty an Objeftion? I will try what can 
be done by pl^n Reason, unaflifted by Art, 
Cunning or Eloquence. 

In my humble Opimon, the Committee <rf 
Council, hath already prejudged the whole Cafe, 
by doling the United Senfe of both Houfes dE 
Parliament in Ireland an Universal Cla- 

* MOUR. 

LETTER in. ^j 

MOOR. Here the Addrefles of the Lords and 
Commons of Ireland againft a Ruinous Dc- 
ftruftive Prcged of an Obfcure^ Single Under- 
taker ^ is called a Clamour* I dcfire tx> know 
how fiich a Style would be Refentcd in Eng^ 
land from a Committee of Council there to 
a Parliament, and how many Impeachments 
would follow upon it. But fuppofing theAppellar 
tion to be proper, I never heard of a wife Miniftec 
who defpifed the Univbrsal Clamour rf 
a People, and if that Clamour can be quieted by 
di&ppointing the Fraudulent Pcadice of a iicgfc 
Perfon, the Puchafe is npt Exorbitant. 

But in Anfwer to this Olgedion. Firft it 
is manifeft, that if this Coinage had been in 
Ireland^ with fuch Limitations as have been 
formerly (pecified in other Patents, and granted 
to Perfons of this Kingdom, or even of England^ 
able to give fufficient Security, few or no In- 
conveniencies could have happened, which 
might not have been immediately remedied. 
As to Mr. Knox*s Patent mentioned in the Re- 
port, Security was given into the Exchequer, 
that the Patentee (hould at any Time receive 
his Half-pence back, and pay Gold or Silver in 
Exchange for them. And Mr. Moor (to whom 
I fuppofe that Patent was made over) was in 
1694 forced to leave off Coining before the 
End of that Year, by the great Orouds of Peo- 


7? fhe t)KAVtEi!s LKfTERS* 

pie cbneinoally offering to return his Coira^' 
upon him. In 1698 he Coined again, and was 
forced to give over for the fame Reafon:. Thk 
entirely alters the Cafe; &>r there is no inch 
Condkion in Wood's Patent, i^ch Condition 
was^ worth a Hundred Times ail bchet Linu^ 
cations whatibever. 

Put the Cafe, that the two Houfcs of 
Lords and Commons oi England^ and the Privy 
Council there fliould addrefe his Majefty to 
recal a Patent, from whence dicy apprehend 
the mod rainous Confequences to the whole 
Kingdom: And to make it fhonger, if poffiUe^ 
that the whole Nation, aimed to a Man, fliould 
thereupon Difeover the moji Difmal Apprtben^ 
Jms (as Mn Wood ftyles dieni;) would his Ma^ 
jefly debate hatf an Hour what he had to do> 
Would any Minifter dare advife him againft 
recalling fiich a Patent? Or would the Matter 
be referred to the Frivy Council or to Weji^ 
mir^er^Hally the two Houfes of Parliameta 
Plaintiff Sy wuMVilliam Wood Defendant? And 
is there even the fhudleft Difference between 
the two Cafes? 

Were not the People of Ireland bom as Free 
l» thofe of England^ How have they forfeited 
their Freedom? Is not their Parliament as §ak 
a Reprefentative of the Peophzs that ciEng^ 
land? And hath not their Privy Council as 


. LETTE R. m. 79 

grwc dr a greater Shate in the Adminifttation 
of Publick Affairs? Are they not Subjcas of the 
feme King? Does not the (amc Sun fliine or* 
them? And have they not the feme God fea: 
their Protcftor? Am I a Free^Man in Ef^iand^ 
and do I become a Slave in fix Hoars by 
crofling the Channel? No Wonder then, if 
the boldeft Perfons were cautious to intcrpofc 
in a Matter already determined by the whok 
Voice of the Nation, or to prdume to repre- 
fent the Reprefentatives of the Kingdom, and 
were juftly apprehenfive of meeting fiich a 
Treatment as they would deferve at the nexf 
SeflicMi. It would fecm very extraordinary if aa 
Inferiour Court in England (hould take a Xfatter 
out of the Hands of the High Court of Patli^ 
liament, during a Prorogation, and decide it a* 
gainft the Opinion of both Houfes. 

It happens however, that, although no Per- 
fons were Co bold, as to go over as Evidences^ 
to prove the Truth of the Objections made a- 
gainft this Patent by the High Court of Parlia- 
ment here, yet thefe Objcftions ftimd Good, 
notwithftanding the Anfwers made by Wood 
and his Council. 

The Report (ays, that upon an AJfay made of 
the Finenefs^ Weight and Value of this Copper^ 
it exceeded in ewry Article. This is pebble 
enough in dbe Piec^ upon which the Affiiy 


Bo vn>e DraMer's LEXtERS. 

was made ; but fToodrndk have £iiled very muck 
in Point of Dexterity, if he had not taken Care 
to provide a fufficient Quantity of fiich Half- 
pence as would bear the Tryal; which he was 
well able to do, although tbey were taken out of 
fever al Parcels. Since it is now Plain, that the 
Biafs of Favour hath been wholly on his Side. 

But what need is there of difputing, when wc 
have a pofitive Demonftration of fPood's Fraa<^ 
dulent Practices in this Point. I have feen a 
large Quantity of thefe Half-pence weighed by 
a very sjkilful Perfon, which were of Four Dil^ 
ferent Kinds, Three of them confiderably under 
weight. I have now before me an exad Compu- 
tation of the Difference of Weight between 
thefe Four Sorts, by which it appears that the 
Fourth Sort, or the Lighteft, differs from the 
Firftto a Degree, that, in the Coinage of Three 
hundred and (ixty Tuns of Copper, the Patentee 
will be a Gainer, only by that Difference, ei 
Twenty Four Thoufand Four hundred and nine- 
ty four Pounds, and in the whole, the Pubiick 
will be a Lofer of Eighty two thoufand one hund- 
red and fixty eight Pounds, Sixteen Shillings, e- 
ven fuppofing the Metal in Point of Goodnefs to 
anfwer flood's Contract and the jdfay that hath 
been made; which it infallibly doth not. For 
this Point hath likewife been enquired into bgf 
very Experienced Men, who, upon feveral Try* 



als in many of thefe Half-pence, have found 
them to be at leaft one Fourth Pare below the 
Real Value (not including the Raps or Counter-' 
feits that he or his Accomplices have already 
made oihis own Coin^ and (battered about ) Nov^ 
the Coinage of Three hundred and fixty Tun of 
Copper coined by the Weight of the Fourth or 
Lighted Sort of his Half-pence _,will amount to 
One hundred twenty two thoufend four hund- 
red eighty eight Pounds, Sixteen Shillings; and 
if -we fubftrad a Fourth Part of the real Value by 
the Bafe Mixture in the Metal, we muft add to 
the publick Lo(s one fourth part, to be fubftraft- 
cd from the Intrinfick Value of the Copper, which 
in Three hundred and fixtyTuns amounts to Ten 
thoufand and eighty Pounds^ and this added to 
the former Sum of Eighty two thouland one 
hundred fixty eight Pounds, Sixteen Shillings, 
will make in all, Ninety two thoufand two hun- 
dred forty eight Pounds Lofs to the publick ; be- 
(ides the Raps or Counterfeits that he may at any 
time hereafter think fit to Coin. Nor do I 
know whether he reckons the Dross Exclufive 
or Inclufive with his Three hundred and fixty 
Tun of Copper ; which however will make a 
confiderable Difference in the Account. 

You will here pleafe to obferve, that the pro- 
fit allowed to Wood by the Patent is Twelve- 
pence out of every Poand ojF Copper valued at 
G IS. 6d« 

8x Ti&^DRAPiER's Letters* 

IS. 6 d. whereas 5 d. only is allowed for Coinage 
of a Pound-Weight for die Englijh Half^pence, 
and this Difference is almoft x^ per Cent, whidi 
is double to the higheft Exchange of Money, 
even under all the Additional Prefliires, and Ob- 
ftrudions to Trade, that this unhappy Kingdom 
lies at prefent. This one Circumftance in the 
Coinage of Three hundred and fixty Tua of 
Copper makes a Difference of Twenty fo^en 
thoufand feven hundred and twenty Pounds be* 
tween Englijh and Irijb Half-pence, even ^- 
bwing thofe of Wood to be all of the heavieft 

It is likewife to be conGdered, that for every 
Halfpenny in a Pound Weight, exceediog the 
Number direfted by the Patent, Wood will be a 
Gainer in the Coinage of Three hundred, juid 
fixty Tun of Copper, Sixteen hundred anddglv^ 
ty Pounds Profit more than the Patent allows 
him$ out of which he may afford to make his 
Comptrollers Easy upon that Article. 

As to what is alledged, that tbefe Half-p^nce 
far exceed the like Coinage for Ireland in ik^ 
Reigns of bis Majejlf s Predecejfbrs.: There cati^ 
not well be a more exceptionable Way of Ar- 
guing, although the Fad were true, which 
however is altogether miftakcn ; not by any 
Fault in the Committee^ but by the Fraud and 
ImpofitioA(^ tVoed^ who certainly produced the 


L E t t £ R IlL 8i 

Worft Patterns he could find, fuch as were coini 
fed in fmall Numbers by Permijions to Private 
Meriy as Butchers Half-^pence, Black Dogs and 
the Like, or perhaps the fthall St. Patrick^ 
Coiii which pafled for a Farthing, or at beft fome 
of the finalleft Raps of the lateft Kind. For t 
have now by me fome Half-pence coined in the 
Vear 1680 by virtue of the Patent granted to 
tny Lord Dartmouthy which was renewed to 
Knox^ and they are heavier by a ninth Part thad 
fchofe oi Woody and in much better Metal. And 
khe great St. Patrick's Half-penny is yet lirger 
than either. 

• But What is all this to the prefent Debate ? If 
imder the various Exigencies of former Timesj 
by- Wars, Rebellions^ and Infurreftions, the 
IGngs of England were fometimes forced to pay 
their Armies here with mixt or bafe Money, Goa 
forbid that the Neceflities of turbulent Times 
fliould be a Precedent for Times of Pcace^ an«i 
Order, and Settlement; 

' in the Patent above nicntfoned granted tb Ldrd 
i) art mouthy in the Reign of King Charles IL. arid 
tenewfed to Knox, the Securities given into the 
Exchequer^ obliging the Patentee to receive his 
^oncy back upon every Demand, vvere ah effc 
ftual Remedy againflall Ineonvchiencies. And 
the Copper was coined in our own Kingdom^ ft* 
that we were iii ho Danger tcJ purehafe it with the 

84 "^he DKA*i]ftR*s Letters. 

Lofs of all our Silver and Gold carrried over to 
another, nor to be at the Trouble ot goirig to 
England fox: the RedreflSng of any Abuic. 

That the Kings of England have exercifcd 
their Prerogative of Coining Copper for Ireland 
and for England^ is not the prefent Qucftion: 
But (to fpeak in the Style of the Report) it 
would feem a little extraordinary^ fuppofing a 
King fliould think fit to exercife hisPrerogative by 
Coining Copper in Ireland^ to be current in 
England^ without referring it to his Officers in 
that Kingdom, to be informed whether the 
Grant was reafonable, and whether the People 
delir'd it or no, and without regard to the Ad- 
drefles of his Parliament againft it : God forbid 
that fo mean a Man as I fliould meddle with the 
King's Prerogative ; but I have heard very wife 
Men fay, that the King's Prerogative is bounded 
and limited by the GWand Welfare of his Peth 
pie. I defire to know, whether it is not under- 
flood and avowed that the Good of Ireland was 
intended by this Patent. But Ireland \s not con- 
fulted at all in the Matter, and as foonas Ireland 
is inform'd of it, they declare againfl: it j the 
TwoHoufes of Parlia7nent2Si^ the Privy Council 
addrefs his Majefly upon the Mifchiefe appre- 
hended by fuch a Patent. The Privy Council ivK 
England take the Matter out of the Parlia- 
ment's Cognizance 5 the Good of the King- 

L E T T E R ra, 85 

•dom is dropt, and it is now determined that Mr. 
Wood (hall have the Power of Ruining a whole 
Nation for his private Advantage. 

I never can fuppofe that fuch Patents as thefe 
were originally granted with the View of being 
a JoBB for the intereft of a Particular Perfon, to 
the Damage of the Publick : Whatever Profit 
muft arife to the Patentee was furely meant at 
beft but as a Secondary Motive, andfince fome- 
body mufl: be a Gainer, the Choice of the Per- 
fon was made either by Favour, or Something 
ELSE, or by the Pretence of Merit and Honcfty. 
This Argument returns fo often and ftrongly in- 
to my Head, that I cannot forbear frequently re- 
peating it. Surely his Majefty, when he confen- 
ted to the Paffing of this Patent, Conceived he 
was doing an Aft of Grace to his Moft Loyal 
Subje6b oi Ireland^ without any Regard to Mr. 
Woody farther than as an Injlrument. But the 
People oi Ireland think this Patent (intended No 
Doubt for their Good) to be a moft intole- 
rable Grievance, and therefore Mr. ^W can ne- 
ver fucceed, without an open Avowal that his 
Profit is preferred not only before the Interejls^ 
but the very S.afety and Being of a great King- 
dom-, and a Kingdom diftinguiflied for its Loyal- 
ty, perhaps above all others upon Earth : Not 
turned from its Duty by the JurifdiSlioin of the 
Houfe of Lords aboliffd at a Stroke^ by the 
G 3 Hardjhipi 

26 The Drap I ERs Letters. 
Hardjhips of the A£t of Navigation newly w- 
forced^ by all poJfH^le ObJlruSiions inTrade^^sxA 
by a Hundred other Inftanccs, enough to fill this 
Paper. Nor was there ever among us the leaft 
Attempt towards an InfurreSlion in Favour of 
the Pretender. Therefore whatever Juftice a 
Free People can Claim we have at leaft an 
Equal Title to it with our Brethren in England^ 
and whatever Grace a good Prince can beftow on 
the moft Loyal SubjeSls^ we have Reafon to ex- 
pe£t it ; Neither hath this Kingdom any w^y de- 
ferved to be Sacrificed to one Single^ RapaciouSy 
Obfcurey Ignominious Projector. 

Among other Ciaufes mentioned in this Patent; 
to (hew how Advantagious it is to Ireland^ there 
is one which feems to be of a Singular Nature ; 
that the Patentee (hall be obliged during his Terni, 
to pay Eight hundred Pounds a Tear to the Crowtf^ 
and Two hundred Pounds a Tear to the Comp^ 
troller. I have heard indeed that the King's 
Council do always confider, in the Pafling of a 
Patent, whether it will be of Advantage to the 
Crown, but I have likewife heard that it is at the 
^me Time confidered whether Paffing of it may 
be injurious to any other Perfons or Bodies PoKtidc : 
However, although the Attorney and Solicitot 
be Servants to the King, and therefore bound 
to confult his Majefty*s Intereft, yet I am undef 
fome Doubt whether Eight hundred Pounds a 


L E T T E R m. 87 

Year to the Crown would be equivalent to the 
Ruin of a Kingdom. It would be far better for 
us to have paid Eight, thoufand Pounds a Year 
mto his Majefty's Coffers, in the.midft of all our 
Taxes (which, in Proportion, are greater in this 
Kingdom than ever they were in Englandy even 
during the War) than purchafe fiich an Addition 
to- the Revenue at the Price of our Utter Un* 


^ But here it is plain, that Fourteen thoufand 
Pounds are to be paid by Woo4^ only as a Small 
Circumjlantial Charge for the Purchafe of his Pa- 
tent, what were his other Vifiile Cojis I know not, 
and what were his Latent^ is varioufly con- 
jedured. But he muft be furely a Man of fome 
wonderful Merit. Hath he faved any other 
Kingdom at his own Expence, to give him a Ti- 
tle of Re-imburfing himfelf by the DeftruStion of 
ours? Hath he difcovercd the Longitude or the 
Vntverfal Medicine ? No, but he hath found 
outthc Philofopher^s Stone ^ftct a-new Manner, by 
Debafing oi Copper^ and refolving to force it up- 
on us for Gt?/^. 

When the Two Houfes reprefented to his Ma- 
jefty, that this Patent to Wood was obtained in 
a Clande^ine Manner^ furely the Committee 
could not think, the Parliament would infinuate 
that it had not pafled in the common Forms, 
and run throiigh every Office where Fees and 
G 4 Perquiiites 

88 ^be Drapier's Letters. 

Perquifitcs were due; They knew very wdl that 
Perfons in Places were no Enemies to Grants, and 
that the Officers of the Crown could not be kept 
in the Dark. But the Late Lord Lieutenant ff 
Ireland affirmed it was a Secret to him (and 
who will doubt of his Veracity, cfpeciaUy 
when he Swore to a Perfon of Quality, from 
whom I had it, that Ireland fliould never be 
troubled with thefc Half-pence.) It was a Se^ 
cret to the People of Ireland^ who were to be 
the Only Sufferers ; and thofc who beft knew the 
State of the Kingdom, and were moft able to ad-. 
vife in fuch an Affair, were wholly Strangers to 

• It is allowed by the Report that this Patent 
was paffed without the Knowledge of the Chief 
Governor or Officers of Ireland: And it Ss there 
elaborately fliewn, that Former Patents have 
pa [fed in the fame Manner^ and are good in Law^ 
I (hall not difpute the Legality of Patents, but am 
ready to fuppoTcit in his Majefty's Power to grant 
a Patent for Stamping Round Bits of Copper to 
every Subjed he hath. Therefore to lay afidc 
the Point of Law, I would only put the Quefti- 
on, whether in Reafon and ^uftice it would not 
have been proper, in an Aftair upon which the 
Welfare of a Kingdom depends^ that the (aid 
Kingdom (hould have received timely Notice, 
Wi4 tJiQ Matter not be carried on between thq 


L E T T E X in. «9 

Patentee and the Officers of the Crown, who 
were to be the only Gainers by it. 

The Parliament, who in Matters of this Na- 
ture arc the moft able and Faithful Counfellors, 
did reprcfent this Grant to be deJiruBive ofHrade 
and Dangerous to the Properties of the People^ to 
which the only Anfwer is. That the King bath 
a Prerogative to makefucb a Grant. 

It isaflcrted, that in the Patent to KnoXy His 
Halfpence y are made and declared the Current 
Coin of the Kingdom^ whereas in this to Woody 
there is only a Power given to ijfue them tofucb 
as will receive them. The Authors of the Re^ 
forty I think, do not affirm that the Ki ng can 
by Law Declare any thing to be Current Money 
by his Letters Patents. I dare fay they will not 
affirm it, and if Knox*s Patent contained in it^ 
Powers contrary to Law, why is it mentioned as 
a Precedent in his Majefty's Juji and Merciful 
Reign? But although that Claufebe not in Wood's 
Patent, yet poffibly there are others, the Lega. 
lity whereof may be equally doubted, and par- 
ticularly that, whereby a Power is given to Wil- 
liam Wood to brjak into Houfes infearch of any 
Coin made in Imitation of His. This may per- 
haps be affirmed to be Illegal and Dangerous to 
the Liberty of the Subjeft. Yet this is a Prece^ 
dent taken from Knox\ Patent, where the (amc 


j^ ^be Dkapieil's Letters. 

Power is granted, and i% a Strong Inftance what 
Uies may be (bmctimcs made of Frecedents^ 

But although before the Faffing of this Patent^ 
it was not thought neceflary to confuk any Per* 
iot& of this Kingdom, or make the lead Enquiry 
whether Copper Money were wanted among us; 
Yet now at length, when the Matter is over, 
when the Patent hath long pafled, when Ww>d 
hath akeady coined Seventeen thoufend Pounds 
and hath his Took and Implements prepared to 
Coin Six-times as much more; the Committee 
hath been pleafed to make this Af&ir the Subjeft 
of Enquiry. Wo^d is permitted to produce \m 
Evidences, which confift as I have already ob- 
ferved, of Four in Number, whereof Coleby^ 
Brown and Mr. Finley the Banker are Three. 
Andthefe were to prove that Copper Money was 
Extreamly wanted in Ireland. The firft had 
been out of the Kingdom almoft Twenty Years, 
from the time that he was tryed for Robbing the 
^reafury^ and therefore his Knowledge and Cre-- 
dibility are equal. The Second may be allowed 
a morfe Knowing Wimefs, becaufe I think it is not 
above a Year fince the Houfe of Commons or- 
dered the Attorney General to profecute him, for 
endeavouring to take away the Life ^ John 
Bingham, 'Efqy Member of Parliament ^ byPer^ 
jury and Subornation. He aflerted that he was* 
forced to Tally with his Labourers for want of 


L E T T E R Iff. 91 

SmailMoKiey (whidi hath ofoen been pnOOcd iii 
England by Sir Jmbnje CrmdyzrA othen) but 
thofe who knew him better give a difiercnt tea* 
fon, (if there be any Truth at all m the Faft) that 
he vm^ forced to Tally with his Labourers, noc 
for want rf Half^pence, but of mw( Sul^antiai 
Mmeyy which is highly pofEbIc, beeaufe the 
Race- of Suborners, Forgery Perjurors and Ra^ 
vijhersy arc ufually People of no Fortune, ox o£ 
thofe who have Run it out by their Viioes and 
Prcrfufcncfi. Mr. Finley the Third Witne& ho-i 
neftly confefled, that he was %norant whether 
Ireland wanted Copper Money or Jio ; but all his 
Intention was to buy a certain Quantity fronx 
fFbod at a large Difcounty and fell them as well 
as he couldi by which he hoped to gpt Two ok 
Three Thoufand Pounds for himfeK. 

But fiippofe there wais not one Single Half* 
penny of Copper Coin in tins whole Kingdom, 
(which Mr. Wood feems to intend, unless we will 
come to his Terms, as appears by employing Ws 
Emiflaries to buy up our Old ones at a Penny ia 
the Shilling more than they pais for) it could 
not be any real Evil to us, although it might be 
feme Inconvenience. We have many forts of 
fmall Silver Coins, to which they arc Strangers 
in England^ fuch a$ the French ^bree^ences^ 
Four-^pence bay^-pemysaxidEight^pence-fartbings^^ 
l^^dQtcbFive^pmfs md^eti^nces^ befides by 


9^ TJ&tf Drapier's Letters.^ 

an thdr Twenfy-penceSyZnd ^bree and Faur-pencesy 
which wc are able to make Change to a Half^ 
penny of almoft any piece of Gold or Silver ^ and 
tf we were driven to Brown's Expedient of a 
Sealed Cardy with the little Gold c^ Silver ftill 
remaining, it will I fuppofe, be fomewhat better 
than to have nothing left but Wood's Adulterated 
Copper, which he is neither obliged by his P^- 
tent^ nor hitherto abk by his EJlate to make good. 
The- Report farther tells us, it mujl be admit'- 
ted that Letters Patents under the great Sealof 
Great Britain for Coining Copper Money for Ire- 
land are Legal and Obligatory^ a Jujland Rea^ 
finable Exercife of his Majeffs Royal Preroga- 
tive^ and in no manner Derogatory orlnvajiveof 
any Liberty or Privilege of bis Subje£ls of Ire- 
land. Firft we dcfire to know, why his Ma- 
jefty's Prerogative might not have been as well 
aflertcd, by parting this Patent in Ireland^ and 
Subjeffcing the feveral Conditions of the Contraft 
to the Infpedion of thofe who are only concern- 
ed, as was formerly done in the only Precedents 
for Patents granted for Coining for this King- 
dom, fincethe mixt Money in Queen Elizabeth's 
Time, during the Difficulties of a Rebellion: 
Whereas now upon the greateft Impofition that 
can poffibly be pra£tifed, we muft go to E/g*- 
landvAAi our Complaints, where it hath been 
for fome Timethe FaChion to thiok and to affirm 



that We cannot he too hardly ufeL Again, the 
Report fays, that Such Patents are Obligatory^ 
After long thinking, I am not able to find out 
what can poffibly be meant here by this Word 
Obligatory. This Patent of Wood neither Ob^ 
ligetb him to Utter his Coin, nor us to take it, 
or if it did the latter, it would be fo far Void, 
becaufe no Patent can Oblige the Subjeft againft 
Law, unlets an illegal Patent pafled in 0«f King* 
^ dom, can Bind Another and not itfelf. 

Laftly, it is added that Such Patents are in na 
Manner Derogatory or Invajive of any Liberty 
vr Privilege of the King's SubjeSis of Ireland. If 
this Propofition be true, as it is here laid down, 
without any Limitation either exprefled or Im* 
plyed, it muft follow that a King of England may 
at any Time Coin Copper Money for Ireland^ 
and oblige his Subjeds here to take a piece of 
Copper under the Value of Half a Farthing for 
Haifa Crown, as was pradifed by the late King 
JameSy and even without that Arbitrary Prince's 
Excufe, from the Neceflity and Exigences of his 
Affairs* If this be in no Manner Derogatory nor 
Evajiveofany Liberties or Privileges of the Sub^ 
jeSis of Ireland, it ought to have been exprefled 
what our Liberties ^xA Privileges dxc^ and whe- 
ther we have any at all j for in Specifying the 
Word Ireland, inftead of faying HisMajeJifs 
Subje&s, it would fcem to infmuate that we arc 


94 ^be Drapier's LetIters. 
not upon the fame Foot with our Fdldw Sutsi 
jcfls in England \ which, however the Pradice 
may have been, I hope will never be diredtty af?^^ 
ferted, for I do not undcrftand that Poinin^% 
Aft deprived us of our Liberty^ but only chang-^ 
cd the Manner of pafling Laws here; (which 
however was a PoWer moft indircftly obtained) 
by leaving the Negative to the Two Houics of 
Parliament. Bur, waving all Controvcrfics re-^ 
lating to the Legiflature, no Perfon, I believe^ 
was ever yet fo bold as to afHrm that the People 
of Ireland have not the (ame Title to the Be- 
hefits of the Common Law, with the reft of 
his Majefly's Subje6fe, and therefore whatever 
Liberties or Privileges the People oi England en- 
joy by Common Law, we of Ireland have the 
lame; fo that in my humble Opinion, the Word 
Ireland ^ndmgiti that Propofition, was, in the 
mildcft Interpretation, a Lapfe cf the Pen. 

The Report farther aflerts, thsit the Precedents 
dre many, wherein Cafes of great Importance to^ 
Ireland, and that immediately affeSled the In^ 
terejls of that Kingdom, Warrants, Orders, and 
DireSHons by the Authority of the King and his 
Predeceflbrs, have been ijfued under the Roy at 
Sign Manual, without any previous Reference or 
Advice of his Majeffs Officers ^Ireland, which 
have always bad their due Force, and have bee ft 
pun&ualfy comply" d with^ and obeyed, ll may 


LETTER nl, 9^ 

^ fp,^ and I am heartily forry fey it, bccaufe it 
inajr prove an Eternal Source of Difcontentu 
However among all thefe Precedents there is nor 
one of a Patent for Coining Money for /r«- 

There is nothing hath perplexed me more than 
jthis Doftrine of Precedents* If a. Jobb is to 
be done, and upon (earching ReccMrds you find 
it hath been done before, there will not want a 
Lawyer to juftify the Legality of it, by produ- 
cing his PrecedeniSy without ever confidering the 
Motives and Circumftances that firft introduced 
them, the Neceffity or Turbulence or Iniquity of 
Times, the Comiptions of Minifters, or the Ar* 
bitrary Difpofition of the Prince then Reigning. 
And I have been told by Perfons eminent in the 
iLaw, thattheworft Aftions which Humane Na^ 
cure is capable o^ may be juftified by the (ame 
Dodrinc How the firft Precedents began of 
Determining Calcs of the Higheft Importance to 
Ireland^ and immediately afFeding its Intere{& 
without any previous Reference or Advice to thd 
Kiog's Officers here, may foon be accounted for* 
Bt^ore this Kingdom was entirely Reduced bjr 
the Submiflion of Tyrone in the laft Year of Queert 
Elizabeth^ Reign^ there was a Period of Fout 
Hundred Years, which was a various Scene €^ 
War and Peace between the Et^ip Pale and thd 
trijh Natives^ and the Government of that Pare 
3 of 


of this Ifland which lay in the Englifh Hands; 
was, in many Things under the immediate Ad- 
mitiifttaticMi of the King. Silver and Copper 
-were often Coined here among us, and once at 
Icaft upon great Neceflity, a mixt or bafe Metal 
was fent from England. The Reign of King 
yames I. was employed in fettling the Kingdom 
after ^Tjfrw^'s Rebellion, and this Nation flourifli- 
ed cxtrcamly till the Time of the Maflacre, 
1 541. In that difficult Junfture of Affairs, the 
Nobility and Gentry Coined their own Plate 
here in Dublin. 

By all that I can difcovcr, the Copper Coin of 
Ireland for Three hundred Years paft confiftcd 
of fmall Pence and Half-pence, which particular 
Men had Licence to Coin, and were current on- 
ly within certain Towns and Diflxids, accord- 
ing to the perfonal Credit of the Owner who 
uttered them, and was bound to receive them 
again, whereof I have fcen many Sorts ; neither 
have I heard of any Patent granted for Coining 
Copper for Ireland till the Rdgn of King 
Cbarlesll. which was in the Year 1680. to George 
Leg Lord Dartmouth^ and renewed by King 
yames IL in the firft Year of his Reign to John 
Knox. Both Patents were paffcd in Ireland^ and 
in both, the Patentees were obliged to receive 
their Coin again from any that would ofier them 


L.E T T E R lit. ^7 

Twenty Shillings of it, for which they were ob- 
liged to pay Gold or Silver. 

The Patents both of Lord Dartmouth arid 
Knox were referred to the Attorney GcncrsI 
here, and a Report made accordingly, and borh^ 
as I have already feid, were pafled in this King- 
dom. Knox had only a Patent for the Re- 
mainder of the Term granted to Lord Dart- 
mouthy the Patent expired in 1701. and upoii 
a Petition by Roger Moor to have it renewed, 
the Matter was referred hither, and upon the 
Report of the Attorney and Solicitor, that ic 
was not for his Majefty's Service or the Inter- 
eft of the Nation to have it renewed, it was 
Rgeded by King William, It (liould therefore 
feem very Extraordinary^ that a Patent for 
Coining Copper Half-pence, intended and pro- 
fefled for the Good of the Kingdom, fhould be 
pafled without once confulting that Kingdom, 
for the Good of which it is declared to be in- 
tended, and this upon the Application oi^Toor^ 
Private^ Ob/cure Mechanick ; and a Patent . of 
fuch a Nature, that as foon as ever the Kingdom 
is informed of its being pafled, they cry out 
, Unanimoufly agaihft^ it as Ruinous and jD^- 
JiruSiive. The Reprefentatives of the Nation 
. in Parliament, and the Privy-Council Addrefs 
the King to have it Recall'dj yet the Patentee, 
fuchrai>ncji5 I have defcribed, (liall prevail, to 

H have 

6S TbeDKAviT.K*s Letters. 

have this Patent approved, and his private In- 
tereft IhaQ weigh down the Application c^ a 
whole Kingdom. St, Paul (ays, jill things are 
Lawful, hut all things are not Expedient Wc 
are anfwered that this Patent is Lawful^ biit 
is it Expedient ? We read that the High Prfeft 
(aid, It was expedient that me Man Jbould 
Die for the People-^ And this was a mo(t wick- 
ed Popofition. But that a whole Nation (hould 
Die for one Man^ was never heard of before. 

But becaufe much Weight is laid on the 
Precedents of other Patents, for Coining Capper 
for Ireland, I vnll (ct this Matter in as clear a 
Light as I can. Whoever hath read the Re-- 
port^ will be apt to think, that a Dozen Pre- 
cedents at Icaft could be produced of Copper 
Coyned for Ireland^ by Virme of Patents pa(^ 
fed in England^ and that the Coynagc was 
there too; whereas I am confident, there can- 
not be one Precedent (hewn of a Patent paflcd 
in England for Coining Copper for Ireland^ 
for above an Hundred Years pa(V, and if there 
were any before, it muft be in Times of Con- 
fufion. The only Patents I could ever hear 
of, are thofe already mentioned to Lord Dart^ 
mouth and Knox^, the Former in 1680. and the 
Latter in 16% ^^ Now let us compare the(c Pa- 
tents with that granted to IVood. Firfl, The 
Patent to J&^t^x, which was und^ the (amc 



Conditions as that granted to hoici Dartmouth^ 
ivas pafled in Irelandy the Government and 
the Attorney and Solicitor General making Re- 
port that it would be ufeful to this Kingdom. 

The Patent was pafled with the Advice of 
the King's Council here; The Patentee was ob- 
liged to receive his Coin from thofe who thought 
themfelves furcharged, and to give Gold and 
Siher for it : Laftly, The Patentee was to pay 
only 16/. 13X. 4^. per Ann. to the Crown. 
Then, as to the Execution of that Patent. 
Firft, I find the Half-pence were Milled, which, 
as it is of great Ufe to prevent Counterfeits 
(and therefore induftrioufly avoided by fFoodJ 
Co it was an Addition to the Charge of Coinage. 
And for the Weight and Goodnefs of the Me- 
tal; I have feveral Half-pence now by me, 
many of which weigh a Ninth Part more than 
thofe coined by fFtfod, and bear the Fire and 
Hammer a great deal better j and which is no 
Trifle, the Impreffion Fairer and Deeper. I 
grant Indeed, that many of the latter Coinage 
yield in Weight %o fome oiWood\ by a Fraud 
natural to fuch Patentees-, but not fo immedi- 
ately after the Grant, and before the Coyn grew 
Current : For in this Circumflance Mr. Wood 
muft ferve for a Precedent in Future Times. 

Let us now examine this new Patent granted 

to IVilliam Wood. It Pafled upon very falfe Sug- 

H X geflions* 


ICO The D«.AP I Sr's LETTfeRS. 

geftionsofhis own, and of afewCc»ifederat«: 
It pafTed in England^ without the leafl: Refe- 
rence hither. It pafled unknown to the very 
Lord Lieutenant^ then in England. Wood \s 
empowered to coin one Hundred and Eight 
thouland Pounds, and all the Officers in the 
Kingdom (Civil and Military) are commanded 
in the Report to Countenance and affift him. 
Knox had only Power to utter what he would 
take^ and was obliged to receive bis Coyn back 
again at our Demand^ and to enter into Secu- 
rity for fo doing. JVood\ Half-pence are not 
Milled^ and therefore more eafily Counterfeited 
by himfelf as well as by others. Wood pays a 
Thouland Pounds per Ann^ for 14 Years, Knot 
paid only 16/. 13J. ^. per Ann. for xi Years. 
It was the Report that fet me the Example 
of making a Comparifon between thofe two 
Patents wherein the Committee was groflymifled 
by the falle Reprefentation of William Wood^ 
as it was by another Aflertion, that Seven hun- 
dred Tuns of Copper were coined during the 
21 Years of Lord Dartmouth's and Knox^s 
Patents. Such a Quantity of Copper at the 
R^te of IS. 2d. ^^r Pound would amount to about 
an Hundred and Ninety Thoufend Pounds 
which was very near as much as the current 
Cafli of the Kingdom in thofe Days; yet, during 
that Period^ Ireland was never known to have 



too much Copper Coin, and for (evcral Years 
there was no cdning at all : Befidcs , I am aff- 
;fiired, that upon enquiring into the Cuftom- 
Houfe Books all the Copper imported into the 
Kingdom, from 16S3 to 1692. which includes 
8 Years of the xi (beGdes one Year allowed 
for the Troubles) did not exceed 47 Tuns, 
-and we cannot fuppofe even that (mali Quan- 
tity to have been wholly apply 'd to Coinage: 
So that I believe there was never any Compa- 
rifon more unluckily made or (6 deftruj^hve of 
the Defign for which it was produced. 

The Pfalmift reckons it an EfFed of God's 
Anger, when be felleth his People for Nought^ 
and taketh no Money for them. That we have 
greatly offended God by the V/ickednefs of our 
Lives is not to be difputed : But our King w^e 
have not offended in Word or Deed; and al- 
though he be God's Vice-gerent upon Earth, 
he will not punifli us for any Offences, except 
thofe which we (hall commit againft his Legal 
Authority, his Sacred Perfon (which God pre- 
serve) or the Laws of the Land* 

The Report is very profufe in Arguments, 
that Ireland is in great want of Copper Mo- 
ney. Who were the Witnefles to prove it, hath 
t)een (hewn already ; but in the Name of God, 
Who are to be Judges? Does not the Nation 
beft know its own Wants ? Both Houfes of 

H 3 Parlia^ 

lox The Drap xer's Letters. 

Parliament, the Privy Council and the whole 
Body of the People declare the contrary. Or 
let the Wants be what they will, we defirc 
they may not be fupply'd by Mr. Wood. Wc 
know our own Wants hxxi too well: They arc 
Many and Grievous to be bom, but quite of 
another Kind. Let England be ^tisfied: As 
things go, they will in a fliort Time have all 
our Gold and Silver, and may keep their Adul- 
terate Copper at Home, for we are deter- 
mined not to purchafe it with our Manufac- 
tures, which Wood hath gracioufly offered to 
accept. Our Wants are not fb bad by an 
Hundredth Part as the Method he hath taken 
to fupply them. He hath already tryed his 
Faculty in New-Englandy and I hope he wil/ 
meet atleaft with an Equal Reception here; 
what I'hat was I leave to pubftpk Intelligence. 
I am fuppofing a Wild Cafe, tlwt if there fhould 
be any Perfon already receivii^g a Monfbous 
Penfion out of this Kingdom, Who was Infhu- 
mental in procuring this Patent, they have ei- 
ther not well confulted their own Interefh, or 
Wood mufi put more Drofi into his Copper and 
ftill diminifh its Weight. 

Upon Wood's Complaint that the OAicers of 
the King's Revenue here had already given 0#- 
ders to all the inferior Officers not to receive 
any of his Coin, the Report (ays, That tbis 


L E T T E R m. loj 

canfiot but be looked upon as a very extraordi- 
nary Proceedings and being contrary to the 
Powers given in the Patent, the Committee fay, 
They cannot advije bis Majejiy to give DireSii- 
Otis to the Officers of the Revenue bere^ not to 
receive or utter any of tbefaid Coin as has 
been dejired in the Addrejfes of both Houfes^ buc 
on the contrary, they think it both Juji and 
Reafonable that the King Jhould immediately 
give Orders to the Commijjioners of the Reve- 
nue^ &c. to revoke all Orders^ &c. that may 
have been given by them to hinder or obJlruSf 
the receiving the f aid Coin. And accordingly, 
we are told, fuch Orders are arrived. Now 
this was a Caft of Wood's Politicks ; for his In- 
formation was wholly Falfe and Groundlefs, 
which he knew very well; and that the Com- 
miflSoners of the Revenue here were all, except 
one, fent us from England^ and love their Em* 
ployments too well to have taken fuch a Step: 
But Wood was wife enough to confider, that 
fiich Orders o( Revocation would be an open 
Declaration of the Crown in his Favour, would 
put the Government here under a Difficulty, 
would make a Noife, and poffibly create fome 
Terror in the poor People of Ireland. And 
one great Point he hath gained, that although 
any Orders of Revocation will be necdlefi, yet 
a new Order is to be fent, and perhaps alrea- 

H4 dy 

J04 ^^^ *Drapier*s Letters. 

dy here, to die Commiffioners of the Hevcnuc, 
and all the King's Officers in Ireland^ that* 
Wood\ Half 'pence be fuffered and permittedy, 
nipithout any Lety Suit, T'rouMe, Mole/iaficm^r 
Denial of any of the Kings OJicers or Mini^ 
Jiers whatfoever^ to pafs and be received as 
Current Money by fuch as Jhall be willing 
tQ receive them. Li this Order there is no 
Exception, and therefore, as far as I can judge, 
ic includes all Officers both Civil and Military^ 
ftdm. the Lord High Chancellor to a ^ujlice 
of Pedce, and from the General to an Ehjign: 
Sp that JVood^s Projeft is not likely to fall for 
want of Managers enough. For my own 
Part, as Things ftand, I have but little Re- 
gret to find my fel^ out of the Number^ and 
therefore I fliall continue in all Humilitv to ex- 
hort and Warn my Feljow-Subjccls never to • 
receive or utter this Coin, which will reduce 
the Kingdom to Beggary by puich quickef and 
larger Steps than have hitherto been taken. 

But it is needlefi to argue any longer. The 
Matter \s come to an Ifliie. His Majefly Pur^ 
fuant to the Law, hath left the Field opep be- 
tween Wood and the Kingdom of Ireland. Wood. 
hath Liberty to Offer his Coin, and we have 
haw^ ReajoUy Liberty and NeceJJity to refufe \t\ 
A knavifii Jockey may ride an old Foundred 
Jade about the Marker, but none arc obliged 


LETTER ra. tos 

to buy it. I hope the Words Voluntary arid 
prilling to receive it will be underftood, and 
applyed in their true natural Meaning, as coni^ 
monly underjiood by Protestants. For if a 
Fierce Captain comes to my Shop to buy Sit 
Yards of Scarlet Cloth, followed by a Porter 
laden with a Sack of Wood's Coin upon his 
Shoulders^ if we are agreed about the Price, 
and niy Scarlet lies ready cut upon the Coun- 
ter, if he then gives mt tht Word of Command 
to receive my Money in Wood's Coin, and rails 
me a DifaffeBed Jacobite Dog for refufing it 
(dthough I am as Loyal a Subjed as himfeli^ 
and without Hire) and riiereupon Seizes niy 
Glorh, leaving me the Price in this Odious Cop-: 
per, and bids me take my Remedy: In this 
Cafe, I (hall hardly be brought to think that 
I am left to my own Will. I (hall therefore 
ov\ firch Occafions, firfl: order the Porter a. 
forelaid to go off with his Pack, and then fee 
the Money in Silver and Gold in my PofTeflion 
before I Cut or Meafure my Cloth. But' if 
a Common Soldier drinks his Pot firft, and then 
offers Payment in Wood's Half-pence, the Land^ 
lady mx^ be under (bme Difficulty: For if (he- 
complains to his Captain or Enjign^ they ar6 
like wife Officers, included in this General Or- 
der for encouraging thefe Half-pence to pafs as 
CvRB^ENT Money. If fte goes to a Jnflicc 


to6 7ieDKAfi%K*s Letters. 

of Peacfy he i$ alio an Officer^ to whom dm 
General Order is directed I do therefore advife 
her to folbw my Practice, which I have al«* 
leady b^n, and be payed for her Goods be- 
fore (he parts with them. HQWeyer, I (hoold 
have been content, for fome Reafbns, that the 
hBUtary Gentlemen had been excepted by 
Name, becaufe I have heard it (aid, that their 
Di(cipline is befl: confined within their own 

His Majefty in the Conclufion of his Antwer 
to the Addrels of the Hode of Lords, againft 
Wcoits Coin, is plea(ed to (ay, that He wiS 
do every TCbing in bis Power for the Satisfac^ 
tim of bis People. It (hould feem therefore, 
that the Recalling the Patent is not to be un- 
da(hx>d as a Thing in his Power: But howt* 
ver, (bee the Law does not oblige us to receive 
this Coin, and con(cquently the Patent leaves it 
to our voluntary Choice, there is nothing re- 
maining to preierve us from Ruin, but that 
the whole Kingdom (hould continue ir^ a firm 
determinate Refolucion never to receive or ut- 
ter this Fatal Coin: After which, let the Of- 
ficers to whom thc(e Orders are dircdcd, (I 
would willingly except the Military) come 
with their Exhortation^ their Arguments and 
their Eloquence^ to perfuade us to find our Inr 
tereft in our Unddng. Let Wood and his 


L E T T E R in. 107 

jicctmpiices Travd about the Countiy with 
Cart-Loads of their fFare^ and fee who wift 
take it off their Hands, there will be no Fear 
of his being robbed, for a Higbway-Man would 
(com to touch it. 

lam enly in Pain how the CMimiJJumers of 
the Revenue will proceed in this Jundure; be^ 
caufe I am told they are obliged by ASt of 
Parliament, to take nothing but GoldznA Silver 
in Payment for his Majcfty's Cuftoms^ and I 
think they cannot juftly offer this Coinage of 
Mr. Wood to others, unlefs they will be con- 
tent to receive it thcmfelves. 

The Sum of the whole is this. The Com'- 
mittee advi/es the King to fend immediate Or-- 
ders to alibis Officers bere^ that Wood's Coin 
be fuffered and permitted witbout any Lety Suit^ 
^r&uhky &c. to pajs and be received as Cur- 
rent Money, by fucb as jhall be Willinc 
to receive tbe fame. Ic is probable, that the 
firft Willing Receivers may be thofe who Mi^ 
Receive it wbetber tbey will or na^ at Icaft un- 
der the Penalty of lofing an Office. But the 
Landed Undepending Men^ the Merchants^ the 
Sbop^Keepers and Bulk of the People, I hope, 
and am almoft confident, will never receive it. 
What mufl the Confcquence be? The Own- 
ers will fell it for as much as they can get. 
W90(fs Half-pence will come to be offered for 

io8 7'beDKAViEK's Letters. 
Six a Penny (yet then he will be a fyfficienft 
Gainer) and die Nec^Jfary Receivers will be 
Lofers of Two Thirds in their Salaries or 

This puts me tn Mind of a Paflage I was 
told many Years ago in Englawl Ac a Quar- 
ter-Seflfions in Leicejler^ the Jufticcs had wifely 
decreed to take off a Half-penny in a Quart 
from the Price of Ale. One of them who 
came in after the Thing was determined, being 
informed of what had pafled, faid thus: Gen- 
tlemen y Tou have made an Order ^ that Ale 
Jhould be fold in our Country for three Half- 
pence a §luart: I defire you mil now make an^ 
other to appoint ivbo mujl drink it, for By G— 
I Will Not- 

I muft beg leave to caution your Lord/hips 
and JVorJhips in one Particular. Wood hath gra- 
cioufly promifed to Load us at prefent only with 
Forty thoufand Pounds of his Coin, 'till the 
Exigencies of the Kingdom require the Reji. I 
inireat you will never fuffer Mr. Wood to be a 
Judge of your Exigencies. While there is 
one Piece of Silver or Gold remaining in the 
Kingdom he will call it an Exigency, he will 
double his prefent S^uantum by Stealth as foon 
as he can, and will have the Remainder (till 
to be Good. He will pour his own Raps 
and Counterfeits upon us: France and Hol-^ 


LETTER m. 109 

land will do the, fame; nor will our owii Coin- 
ers at home be behind them:. To confirm 
which , I liave now in my Pocket a Rap or 
Counterfeit Half-penny in Imitation of his, 
bitf fo ill performed, that in my Confcience I 
believe it is not of his Coining. 

I muft now defire your Lord/hips and Wor-- 
JhipSy that you will give great Allowance for 
this long undigefted Paper; I find my felf to 
have gone into feveral Repetitions, which were 
the Effcds of haftc, while new thoughts fell 
in to add fomething to what I had faid before. 
I think I may affirm, that I have fully anfwer- 
ed every Paragraph in the Report^ which al- 
though it be not unartfiilly drawn, and is per- 
feftly in the Spirit of a Pleader who can find 
the moft plaufible Topicks in behalf of his 
Client, yet there was no great Skill required 
to detect the many Miftakes contained in it, 
which however are by no Means to be charg- 
ed upon the Right Honourable Committee, 
but upon the moft Falfe Impudent and Frau- 
dulent Reprefentations of Wood and his Accom- 
plices. . I defire one Particular may dwell up- 
on your Minds, although I have mentioned it 
more than once; That after all the Weight lay- 
ed upon Precedents there is not one produced 
in the whole Report^ of a Patent for Coining 
Copper in England to pals in Ireland^ and 


no 7%r Drapier's Letters. 

only two Patents referred to (for indeed there 
were no more) which were both pafled in 
Ireland by References to the King's Councit 
here, both leis Advantagious to the Coyner 
than this of Woody and in bodi. Securities 
given to receive the Coin at every Cally and 
give Gold and Silver in Lieu of it. This 
Demonftrates the moft Flagrant FaUhood and 
Impudence of Wood^ by which he would en- 
deavour to make the Right Honourable Com- 
mittee his In(huments, (for his own Ulcgsd and 
Exorbitant Gain) to ruin a Kingdom, which 
has defcrved quite different treatment. 

I am very fenfible that fuch a Work as I 
have undertaken might have worthily employ- 
ed a much better Pen. But when a Houfe is 
attempted to be Robbed, it often happens 
that the weakefl: in the Family runs firft to 
flop the Door. All the Affifl^nce I had were 
fome Informations from an Eminent Per/on^ 
whereof I am afraid I have fpoiled a Few by 
endeavouring to make them of a Piece with 
my own Productions, and the reft I was 
not able to manage: I was in the Cafe of 
David who could not move in the Armour of 
Saul, and therefore I rather chofe to attack 
this Uncircumcifed Philijline (Wood I mean) 
with a Sling and a Stone. And I may fay^ 
for Wood's Honour as well as my own^ that 


L E T T E R nl 111 

he rcfeti^les Goitab in many Circumftances, 
very applicable to the prcfent Purpofe; foe 
Goliab had a Helmet ofBrafs upon bis Head^ 
and be was armed witb a Coat of Mail^ and 
ibe Weigbt of tbe Coat was Five I'boufand 
Sbekles of Brafs^ dnd be bad Greavef of Bra/i 
upon bis LegSy and a target of Brafs between 
bis S boulders. In fliort he was like Mr. Wood^ 
all over Brafs-, and be defied tbe Armies of 
\ tbe living God. Goliab* s Condition of Com- 
bat were likewife the fame with thofe oiWoodz 
If be prevail againji us, then Jhall we be bis 
Servants. But if it happens that I prevail over 
him, I renounce the other Part of the Condi- 
ticxi, he (hall never be a Servant of Mine, for 
I do not think him fit to be trufted in any 
Honejl Man's Shop. 

I will conclude with my Humble Defire and 
Requeft which I made in my Second Letter; 
That your Lordjhips and Worjhips would 
pleafe to Order a Declaration to be drawn up, 
cxpreffing in the Strongeft Terms, your Refo- 
lutions never to Receive or Utter any oi Wood's 
Half-pence or Farthings, and forbidding your 
Tenants to teceive them. That the bxADe^ 
claration may be Signed by as many Perfbns 
as poCfible who have Eftates in this Kingdom^ 
and be fent Down to your feveral Tenants a- 



IIX 72^ DllA»lEll*S LBTTBR8. 

And if the Dread of Wood^s Halfpence 
Ihoald continue 'dli ncxt^uarter Sejfkms (which 
I hc^ ic will not) the Gentlemen of every 
County will dien have a £ur Opportunity of 
Declaring against them with Unanimity and 

/ am with the greateft Rtjpe^^ 

\ . ^ 

(May it pkafe your Lordjhips andWcrftnp) 

' , '^ 
• . *•• 

tour moft Dutiful and 

Aug. 25". Obedient Servant, 




T O T H E 


O F 


Together with SEASONABLE ADVICE to 
the Grand Jury concerning the Bill preparing 
againft the Printer of that Letter. 

A Letter to the whole People of 

My 'Dear Countrymen^ 

AVING already written Three 
Letters^ upon fo difagreeable a 
Subjeft, as Mr. Wood and his 
Half -pence ; I conceived my Task 
was at an End : But I find that 
Cordials muft be frequently apply 'd to v/eak 
Conftitutions, Political as well as Natural. A 
People long ufed to Hardfliips, lofe by Degrees 
the very Notions of Liberty-, they look upon 
themfelves as Creatures at Mercy, and that all 
Impofitions laid on them by a ftronger Hand, 
are, inthePhrafeofthe if?^/d?r/, Legal and Obli- 
gatory. Hence proceeds that Poverty and Low- 
nefs of Spirit^ to which a Kingdom m^cy be fub- 
jed as well as a Particular P erf on. And when 
Efau came fainting from the Field at the Point to 
I % Die 

ii6 I'he Drapier's Letters. 

Die, it is no wonder that he fold his BirtbSigbi 

for a Mefs of Pottage. 

I thought I had fufficiently (hewn to all who 
could want Inftruftion, ty what Methods they 
might fafely proceed, whenever this Q)in (hould 
be offered to them : And I believe there hath not 
been for many Ages an Example of any Kingdom 
ft) firmly united in a Point of great Importance, 
as this of Ours is at prefent, againft that deteila- 
ble Fraud. But however, it fo happens that 
(bme weak People begin to be allarmed a-ncw, 
by Rumours induftrioufly fpread. Wood pre- 
fcribes to the News-Mongers in London what 
they are to write. In one of their Papers pul> 
liflied here by fome obfcure Printer (and proba- 
bly with no good Defign) we are told, that the P^- 
pyis in Ireland have entered into an AJfociation 
againji ins Coin^ although it be notorioufly known 
that they never once offered to flir in the Matter ; 
Co that the Two Houfes of Parliament, the Privy 
Council, the great Numbers of Corporations, the 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen of JDa^//;?, the Grand- 
Juries, and principal Gentlemen of (everal Coun- 
ties are ftigmatized in a Lump under the Name 
of Papijis. 

This Impoftor and his Crew do likewife give 
out, that, by refufing to receive his Drofs for 
Sterling, we difpiite the Kings Prerogative^ are 
grorjcn ripe for Rebellion^ and ready to Jhake ojf 


L E T T E R IV. X17 

the Dependency of hdxndi upon the Crown of 
England. To countenance which Reports, he 
hath publifli^d a Paragraph in another News- 
Paper, to let us know, that the Lord Lieutenant 
is ordered to come over immediately to fettle his 

I intreat you, my dear Countrymen, not to 
be under the leaft Concern upon thefe and the 
like Rumours, which are no more than the laft 
Howk of a Dog difleded alive, as I hope he hath 
(ufficiently been. Thefe Calumnies are the only 
Referve that is left him. For furely our conti- 
nued and (almoft) unexampled Loyalty will never 
be called in Queftion, for not fuflfering our (elves 
to be Robbed of all that we have, byoneobfcurc 

As to difputing the King's Prerogativey give 
me Leave to explain to thofe who are Ignorant, 
what the meaning of that word Prerogative 

The Kings of thefe Realms enjoy feveral Pow- 
ers, wherein the Lav^rs have not interpofed: 
So they can make War and Peace without the 
Confent of Parliament J and this is a very great 
Prerogative. But if the Parliament doth not ap- 
prove of the War, the King muft bear the Charge . 
of it out of his own Purfe ; and this is as great a 
Check on the Crown. * So the King hath a Pre^ 
rcgative to Cgin Money without Confent of Par- 

I 3 liament. 

ii8 ^be D'rapier's Letters. 

liamcnt. But he cannot compel the Subjeft to 
take that Money except it be Sterling, Gold or 
Silver ; becaufe herein he is limited by Law. 
Some Princes have indeed extended their Preror 
gative further than the Law allowed them: 
Wherein however, the Lawyers of Succeeding 
Ages, as fond as they are of Precedents^ have 
never dared to juftifie them. But to (ay the 
Truth, it is only of late Times that Prerogative 
hath been fixed and afcertained. For whoever 
reads the Hiftories of England^ will find that 
fome former Kings, and thcfc none of the worft, 
have upon fevcral Occafions ventured to con? 
troul the Laws with very litrie Ceremony or 
Scruple, even later than the Days of Queen E- 
lizabetb. In her Reign that pernicious Counfel 
of (ending Bafe Money hither, very narrowly 
failed of Lofing the Kingdom, being complained 
of by the Lord Deputy, the Council, and the 
whole Body of the EngUjh here : So that foqn 
after her Death it was recalled by her SucceHbr, 
and Lawful Money paid in Exchange. 

Having thus given you fome Notion of what 
is meant by the King's Prerogative^ as far as 4 
^radefman can be thought capable of Explain-* 
ing it, I will only add the Opinion of the great 
Lord Bacon, That as God governs the World by 
the fettled Laws of Nature^ which he hath made^ 
fnd never tranfcends thofehaws but uj^on High Im- 

L E T T E R IV. 1T9 

portant O^cajions : So among Earthly Princes^ 
thofe are the Wifcji aftd the Beji^ 'mho govern by 
the known Laws of the Country ^ and feldoimeft' 
make Ufe of their Prerogative. 

Now, here you may fee that the Vile Accufa- 
tion of Wood and his Accomplices, charging us 
with Difputing the King's Prerogative by refu- 
fing his Bra(s, can have no Place, becaufe compel- 
ling the Subjed to take any Coin which is not 
Sterling is no Part of the King's Prerogative \ and 
I am very confident if it were fo, we fliould be the 
lafl: of his People to difpute it, as well from that 
inviolable Loyalty wc have always paid to his 
Majefty, as from the Treatment we might in 
fuch a Cafe juftly expedfrom fome whoieem to 
think, wc have neither Common Senfe nor Com- 
mon Senfes. But God be thanked, the Beft of 
them are only our Fellow SubjeBs^ and not our 
Majiers. One great Merit I am fure we have, 
which thofe oiEngliJh Birth can have no Pretence 
to. That our Anceftors reduced this Kingdom to 
the Obedience of England, for which we have 
been rewarded with a worfe Climate, the Privi- 
lege of being governed by Laws to which we do 
not confcnt, a Ruined Trade, a Houfe of Peers 
without JurifdiSlion^ almoft an Incapacity for all 
Employments, and the Dread of ^Ws HaJf^ 

1 4 But 

no ^be Drapieh's Letters. 

But we arc (b far from difputing the King's 
Prerogative in Coining, that we. own he has 
Power to give a Patent to anyManforfettinghis 
Royal Image and Superfcription upon whatever 
Materials he pleafes, and Liberty to the Patentee 
to offer them in any Country from England to 
yapan^ only attended with one (mall Limitation, 
ThsLt no body alive is obliged to take them. 

Upon thefe Confiderations I was ever againd 
all Recourfe to England for a Remedy againft the 
prcfent Impending Evil, efpecially when I obfer- 
ved that the Addreflcs ofBoch Houfes, after long 
Expectance, produced nothing but a Report 
altogether in Favour oiWood^ upon which I made 
fome Obfervations in a former Letter, and might 
at lead have made as many more : For it is a Pa« 
per of as Singular a Nature as I ever beheld. 

But I miftaJce 5 for before this Report was made, 
His Majcfty's Moft Gracious Anfwer to the 
Houfe of Lords was fent over and Printed, where- 
in there are thefe Words, Granting the Patent for 
Coining Half-pence and Farthings Agreeable 
to the Practice of His Royal Prede- 
cessors, Gfr. That King Charles II. and King 
yatnesll. (and They only) did grant Patents 
for this Purpofe is indilputable, and I have (hewn 
it at large. Their Patents were pafled under the 
great Seal of Ireland by References to Ire- 
land, the Copper to be coined in Ireland, 


L E T T E R IV. ixi 

the Patentee was bound on Demand to receive 
his Coin back in Ireland and pay Silver and 
Gold in Return, fFbocTs Patent vsras made un- 
der the great Seal of England, the Brafi coined 
in England, not the leaft Reference made to 
Ireland, the Sum Immenfe, and the Patentee 
under no Obligation to receive it again and give 
good Money for it: This I only mention, becaufe 
in my private Thoughts I have (bmetimes made 
a Query, whether the Penner of thofe Words in 
his Majefty's Moji Gracious Anjwer^ Agreea- 
ble TO THE Practice of His Royal Pre- 
decessors, had maturely confideredthefeveral 
Circumftances, which, in my poor Opinion, 
feem to make a Difference. 

Let me now (ay fomething concerning the 
other great Caufe of fome People's Fear, as Wood 
has taught the Londm News- Writer to exprels 
it: That his Excellency the Lord Lieiaenant is 
coming over to fettle Wood*i Half -pence. 

We know very well that the Lords Ueute- 
pants for feveral Years paft have not thought this 
Kingdom Worthy the Honour of their Refidence^ 
longer than was abfobtely neceflary for the 
King's Bufinefs, which confequently wanted no 
Speed in the Dijpatch j and therefore it natural- 
ly fell into moft Mens Thoughts, that a new Go- 
vcrnour coming at an UnuJualTime mufl: portend 
fome Vnufual Bufineft to be done, especially if 


izz 7'be Dhafier's Letters. 

the Common Report be true, That the Parlia- 
ment Prorogued to I know not when, is by a 
new Summons (revoking that Prorogation) to at 
femble foon after his Arrival : For which extra- 
ordinary Proceeding the Lawyers on t'other fide 
the Water have by great good Fortune found 
Two Precedents. 

All this being granted, it can never enter into 
my Head that lb Little a Creature as WoodcoxAA, 
find Credit enough with the King and his Mini- 
fters to have the Lord Lieutenant oi Ireland fent 
hither in a Hurry upon his Errand. 

For let us take the whole Matter nakedly as 
it lies before us, without the Refinements of 
fome People, with which we have nothing to do. 
Here is a Patent granted under the great Seal of 
^nglandy upon falfe Suggeftions to one William 
WoodioT Coining Copper Half-pence for Ireland: 
The Parliament here, upon Apprehenfions of 
the worft Confequences from- the (aid Patent, 
addrefs the King to have it recalled ; this is re- 
fiifed, and a Committee of the Privy Council 
Report to his Majefty, that Wood has performed 
the Conditions of his Patent. He then is left to 
do the beft he can with his Half-pence j no Man 
Joeing obliged to receive them ; the People here, 
being likewife left to themfelves, unite as one 
Man, refolving they will have nothing to do with 
his Ware. By this plain Account of the Fad it 


L E T T E R IV. I^3 

is manifeft, that the King and his Miniftry are 
wholly OM of the Cafe,* and the Matter is left to 
be difputed between him and us. Will any Man 
therefore attempt to perfuade me, that a Lord 
Lieutenant is tobedifpatched over in great Hafte 
before the Ordinary Time, arid a Parliament (iim. 
moned by anticipating a Prorogation, merely to 
put an Hundred thoufand Pounds into theJPocket 
of a Sharper by theRuin of a moft Loyal Kingdom? 

But fuppofing all this to be true. By what 
Arguments could a Lord Lieutenant prevail on 
the fame Parliament which addreflcd with fo 
much Zeal and Earneftncfe againft this Evil, to 
pafs it into a Law? I am fure their Opinion of 
Wood and his Proje£t is not mended fince the lad: 
Prorogation :• And fuppofing thofe Methods 
(hould be ufed which, DetraSlors tell us, have 
been fometimes put in Pradice io^ gaining Votes y 
it is well known that in this Kingdom there are 
few Emplojrments to be given, and if there were 
more, it is as well known to whofe Share they 
piuft fall. 

But becaufe gfeat Numbers of you are alto- 
gether Ignorant in the Affairs of your Country, 
I will tell you fome Reafons why there are fo few 
Employments to be difpofed of in this Kingdom. 
All confiderable Offices for Life here are poflcflcd 
by thofe to whom the Reverfions were granted, 
and thcfe have been jgenerally Followers of the 


1X4 ^^ Dkapie'r's Letts rsJ 

Chief Govcmours, or Pcrfons who had Intereft 
in the Court of England. So the Lord Berkely 
oiStrattoriy holds that great Office of Majler of 
the RoUsy the Lord Paimerjhwnis Firjl Remem- 
brancer worth near 2000 /. per Ann. One D(h 
i/m^/m^ Secretary to the Earl of Pembroke begged 
the KcvetGotidE Clerk of the Pells worth 2500/. 
a Year, which he now enjoys by the Death of the 
Lord Newtown. Mr. Southwell is Secretary of 
State, and the Earl of Burlington Lord High 
Treafurer of Ireland by Inheritance. Thcfe arc 
only a few among many others which I have been 
told of, but cannot remember. NaytheRever- 
fion of (everal Emplo)mients during Pleafurc are 
granted the (ame Way. This among many 0- 
thers is a Circumftance whereby the Kingdom of 
Ireland is diftinguiflied from all other Nations 
upon Earth, and makes it (b Difficult an Affair to 
get into a Civil Employ, that Mr. Addifon was 
forced to purchafe an old obfcure Place, called 
Keeper of the Records of Bermingham's ^ower 
of Ten Pounds a Year, and to get a Sallary of 
400/. annexed to it, though all the Records 
there are not worth Half a Crown, either for 
Curiofity or Ufe. And we lately (aw a Favou- 
rite Secretary defcend to be Ma/ler of the Revels^ 
which by his Credit and Extortion hs, hath made 
Pretty Confiderable. I fay nothing of the Un- 
der Treafurerfliip worth about 8000/. a Year 



nor the Commiffioncrs of the Revenue, Four of 
whom generally live in England: For 1 think 
none of thefe are granted in Reverfion. But the 
Teft is, that I have known upon Occaflon fomc 
of thefe abfent Officers 85 Keen againft the Inter- 
eft of /r^//?W, as if they had never been indebt- 
ed to Her for a Single Groat 

I confefs, I have been fometimes tempted to 
wifli that this Projed of Wood might fucceed, be- 
caufe I reflefted with fome pleafure what a Jolly 
Crew it would bring over among us of Lords and 
Squiresy and Penjioners ofBotb SexeSy and Of- 
ficers Civil 2s\6, Military y where we (hould live 
together as merry and fociable as Beggars, only 
with this one Abatement, that we (hould neither 
hivtMeat to feed, nor ManufaBures to Cloath 
us, unlefs we could be content to Prance about 
in Coats of Maily or eat Brafs as Oftritches do 

I return from this DigrefTion to that which 
gave me the Occafion of making it : And I be- 
lieve you are now convinced, that if the Parlia- 
ment oi Ireland vrcrc as ^emptable as any other 
Aifembly within a Aff/^g^Chriftcndom (which 
God forbid) yet the Managers muft of Neceffity 
feul for want of T^ools to work with. But I will 
yet go one Step further, by Suppofing that a 
Hundred new Employments were ereded on 
purpofe to gratify Compilers -y yet ftiU an infupc- 


rablc Difficulty would remain j for it happens, I 
know not how, that Money is neither Whig nor 
3ary, neither of Town nor Country Party^ and 
it is not improbable, that a Gentleman would ra- 
ther chufe to live upon his own EJiate which 
brings him G^/i and 5//wr, than with the hd^-^ 
tion of zn Employ me?ity when his Renfs and Sal-^ 
lary muft both be paid in Wood's Brafi, at above 
'Ev^ty per Cent. Difcount. ) 

For thefeand many other Reafbns, I am con- 
fident you need not be under the leaft: Appre- 
henfions from the fudden Expedation of the 
Lord Lieut enanty while we continue in our pre- 
(cnt Hearty Difpofition ; to alter which there is 
no Suitable Temptation can poffibly be dSered: 
And if, as I have often aflerted from the beft 
Authority, the Law hath not left a P&wer in the 
Crown to force any Money except Sterling upon 
the Subjed, much le& can the Crown devolve 
(uch a Power upon another. 

This I fpeak with the utmoft Refpcfl: to the 
Per/on and Dignity of his Excellency the Lord 
Carteret y whofe Charader hath been given me 
by a Gentleman that hath known him from his 
firft Appearance in the World : That Gentleman 
defcribes him as a young Noble Man of great 
AcGomplifliments, excellent Learning, Regular 
in his Life, and of much Spirit and Vivacity. 
He hath fince, as I have heard, been employed 


L E T T E R IV. 127 

abroad, was principal Secretary of State, and is 
now about the 37'^ Year of his Age appointed 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. ' From fuch a Go- 
vemour this Kingdom may reafonably hope for 
as much Profperity, as under fo many Difcour age-* 
tnents it can be capable of Receiving. 

It is true indeed, that within the Memory of 
Man, there have been Governours of (6 much 
Dexterity, as to carry points of Terrible Confe- 
quence to this Kingdom, by their Power with 
tbofe who are in Office^ and by their Arts in 
managing or deluding others with OathSy Affabu 
lityy ' and even with Dinners. If fFvod^s Brafe 
had in thofe Times been upon the Anvil, it is 
obvious enough to conceive what Methods would 
have been taken. Depending Perfons would have 
been told in plain Terms, that it was a Service 
expected from them, under the Vain of the Pub- 
lick Bufnefs being put into more complying Hands. 
Others would be allured by Promifes. To the 
Country Gentlemen, befides Good Words, Bur-- 
gundy and Clofeting, it would perhaps have been 
hinted how kindly it would be taken to comply 
with a Royal Patent, though it were not compute 
faryy that if any Inconveniences enfiied, it miglic 
be made up with other Graces or Favours here-- 
after : That Gentlemen ought to confder whether 
it were prudent orfafeto difguf England : They 
would be defired to think offomegood Bills for 


l^9 ^be Dkapiek's Letters. 

encouraging of ^rade^ and Jetting the Poor to 
Worky fome further ABs againft Popery and for 
Uniting Protejiants. There would be folema 
Engagements chat we (hould never be troubled 
with above Forty tboufand Pounds in his CoiUy and 
all of the beft and weightiejl Sorty for which we 
jhould only give our ManufaSlures in Exchange^ 
and keep our Gold and Silver at Home. Per- 
haps afeafonable Report of fome Ireoafm would 
have been fpread in the moft proper Jun&ure^ 
which IS a great Smoother of Rubs in publick 
Proceedings; and we (hould have been told that 
this was no l^ime to create Differences when the 
Kingdom was in Darker. 

Thefe I (ay, and the like Methods would in 
corrapt Times have been taken to let in this De- 
luge of Brafs among us : And I am confident 
would even then have not (iicceeded , much le(s 
under the Adminiflration of (b excellent a Per- 
(on as the Lord Carteret^ and in a Country where 
the People of all Ranks, Parties and Denomina- 
tions are convinced to a Man, that the utter un- 
doing of thcmfelvcs and their Pofterity for ever 
will be Dated from the Admiflion of that Exe- 
crable Coin ; that if it once enters, it can be no 
more confined to a fmall or moderate Quantity, 
than the Plague can be confined to a few Fami- 
lies, and that no Equivalent can be given by any 



Earthly Powers any more than a Dead Carcafi 
tim be recovered to Life by a Gbrdial. 

There is one comforuble Circumftancic in thS 
Uhiver(al Oppofition to Mx.Whod^ that the 
People fent over hither from England to fill up 
our Vacancies Ecclefiafiicaly Civil and Military^ 
arc all on our Side : Money ^ the great Divider of 
the World, hath by a ftrange Revolution, beed 
the great Uniter of a inoft Divided People; 
Who would leave a Hundred Pounds a Year ia 
TBngland (a Country of Freedom) to be paid 1 
Thoufand in Ireland oat of JVood^s Exchequer f 
The Gentleman ^bey hdve lately made Primate^ 
would never quit his Seat in an Englijh Houfe of 
Lords, and his Preferments at Oxford and Bfi^ 
jkl^ wordi Twelve hundred Pounds a Year, for 
Four times the Denomination here, but not half 
the Value 5 therefore I expeft to hear he will bd 
as good ah Irijh Man^ upod this Article^ as an^ 
of his Brethren, or even of TJs who have had thi 
Misfortune to be bom in this Iflandi For thefe; 
who, in the eomrtion Phrafe, do not tome hit t^ 
to learn the Languagei would never change il 
better G)untry for a Worfe^ to rfeeeivc Brajs in* 

. Another Slander fprqad by Wood and his E* 

tnii&ries is^ that by opponng him we dilcovgf 

ah InclinatiDn to Jhahe ^ our Dependance iifM 

tbi Crown ^ England; Piray obfertc \\&n trii* 


J30 7'&et^kA?iZR% Letters. 

portant a Perfon is this fame William Woody and 
how the publick Weal of Two Kingdoms is in^ 
volved in his private Intcreft. Firft, all chofe 
who rcfufc to take his Coin are Papijis-y for he 
tells us that none but Papijls are ajfociated againfl 
bim. Secondly, They dtfpute the King's Prero^ 
gatiw. Thirdly, They are Ripe for Rebellion. 
And Fourthly, They are going to Jhake off their 
Dependance upon the Crown ^England j that is 
to (ky, they are going to cbufe another King: For 
there can be no other Meaning inthis Expreffion> 
however fomc may pretend to drain ic 

And this gives me an Opportunity of Explain- 
ing, to thofe who are Ignorant, another pdnt^ 
which hath often Swelled in my Breaji. Thofe 
who come over hither to us from England^ and 
fome Weak People among our (elves, whenever 
jb Difcourfe we make mention of Liberty and 
Property^ (hake their Heads, and tell us, that 
Ireland \s a Depending Kingdom^ as if they would 
fecm, by this Phrafe, to intend that the People 
of Ireland is in fomc State of Slavery or Depen- 
dance different from thofe oi England: Where- 
as a Depending Kingdom is a Modern I'erm of Art ^ 
unknown, as I have heard, to all antient Civl* 
iianSy and Writers upon Government ^ ind Ire^ 
land is on the cemtrary called in feme Statutes sui 
Imperial Crowny as held only from God ; which 
is as High a Style as any Kingdom is capable df 


fi^ceiving, Therefore by this Expreflioni a De^ 
pendiftg Kingdom^ there is no more undcrftood 
Ifhan that by a Statute made here in the 33d 
Vear of Henry VIII. The King and his Succef 
fori are to be Kings Imperial of this Realm as 
United and Knit to the Imperial Crown of 
Engfend. I have looked over all the Englijh 
and Irijh Statutes without finding any Law that 
makes Ireland depend upon Englandy any more 
tlian England does upon Ireland. We have in- 
deed obliged our felves to hzvc the fame King 
with iheniy and confequently they arc obliged to 
have the fame King with us. For the Law was 
thade by our owri Parliament ^ and our Anceftors 
then were not fuch Fools (whateoer they nvere in 
the Preceding Reign) to bring thcmfelves under 
i know not what Dependance^ which is ndw 
talked of without any Ground di Law^ ReafoH 
or common Senfe. 

Let whoever think otherwife, I M.B. Dra^ 
pier^ defire to be excepted, for I declare, next 
under God, I depend only on the Kang my Sovc- 
Tcigri, and on the Laws of my own Country; 
and I am fo far from depending upon the People 
o£ Englandy that if they fliould ever Rehel^gsdnQ: 
toy Sovereign (which God forbid) I would be 
ready at the'lStft Command from his Majefty to 
take Armsag^dr^ them, as feme of my Country- 
men di4^i^ainfttr^6^ A»d iffiich a 
K ^ Rebel^ix 

132 T'he Drapier's Letters. 

Rebellion (hould prove fo fuccdlsful as co (i^ the 
Preiendet on the Throne of England^ I would 
venture to tranfgrets th^t Statute (b far as to lofe 
» every Drop of my Blood to hinder him from be* 
ing King of Ireland. 

riis true indeed, that within the Memory of 
Man, the Parliaments of England have Some^ 
times afliimed the Power of binding this King* 
dom by Laws enaded there, wherein they were 
at firft openly oppofed (as far as ^rutb^ Reafon 
and Juftice are capable of Oppofing) by the Fa- 
mous Mt. MolineauXy an Englijh Gentleman 
born here, as well as by (everal of the greateft 
Patriots, and beji Whigs in England^, but the 
Love and I'^rrent of Power prevailed. Indeed 
the Arguments on both fides were invincible- 
for in Reafon, all Government without the Con- 
lent of the Governed is the very Definition tff 
Slavery: But in FaSiy Eleven Men well Armed 
will certainly fubdue one Single Man in his Shirt. 
But I have done. For thofe who have ufed 
Power to cramp Liberty have gone (b far as to 
refent even the Liberty of Complainings altho' 
;a Man upon the Rack was never knovm to be 
refufed the Liberty of Roaring as loud as he 
thought fit. 

And as we are apt to Jink too much under ««- 
reafonable Fears, fo we are too foon indined to 
be Raifed by groundlefe Hopes (according to the 


L E T T E R IV. 131 

Nature of all Conjumptive Bodies like ours.) 

Thus, it hath been given about for feveral Days 

paft, that Some Body in England empowered z 

Second Some-body to write to a third Some-body 

here to afliire us, that vicpould no more be trou^ 

bled with (hofe Half -pence y and this is Reported 

to have been done by the fame Perfon^ who 

was (aid to have Sworn (bme Months ago, that 

he would Ram tbem down our throats (though 

I doubt they would Jiick in our SfctmacbsJ but 

which ever of thefe Reports is True or FaWe, it 

is no Concern of ours. For in this Point we 

have nothing to do with Englijh Minijlers, and 

\ (hould be forry to lay it in their Power toRedrefs 

this Grievance or to Enforce it: For the Report 

of the Committee hath given me a Surfeit. The 

Remedy is wholly in your ov\fn Hands, and 

therefore I have digrefled a little in order to ro* 

frcfli and continue that Spirit fo feafonably raifed 

amongfl you, and to let you fee that by the Laws 

of God, of Nature, of Nations, and of 

your own Country, you Are and Ought to 

be as Free a People as your Brethren in Eng^ 


If the Pamphlets publiflied at London by JFooii 
and his youmey^men in Defence of his Gaufc^ 
were Re-printed here, and that out Country- 
inen could be pecfuaded to read them, they 
Vould convince you of his wicked Pefign mor^ 
|C 3 ibaa 

l34 7^^ Drap iek'j Letters. 
Chan all I (hall ever be able to (ay. In (horc I 
make him a perfed jS^m/ in ComparKbn of what 
he appears to be jfirom the writings of chofe 
whom he Hires to juftifie his ProjeB. But he 
is^h far Majier of the Field (let others guefs the 
Heafon) that no London Printer dare publifii any 
Paper written in Favour of Ireland^ and here ito 
body hath yet been fo bold 9s to publi(h any thing 
in Favour oi him. 

There was a few Days ago a Pamphlet (cnt 
me of near 5*0 Pages Written in Favour of Mr- 
Wood 2nd his Coinage, printed in LtrndoBy it is 
not worth anfwering, becau(e probably it will ne- 
ver be publi(hed here : But it gave mp an Occafi- 
on to refled upon an Unhappinefe we lie under^ 
that the People of England are utterly ignotanc 
ofourCa{c, which however is no Wonder, (incc 
it is a poiht they do not in the leaft concern 
themfelves about, farther thaii perhaps as a Sab^ 
jeft of Difcourfe in a CofFcc-Hpufe, when they 
have nothing el(e to talk o£ For I have Rca»r 
Ton to believe that no Minifter ever gave hinoielf 
the Trouble of reading any Papers Written iaour 
Pefence, becaufe I fuppofe their Opinions are alr^ 
ready determihedy and are formed wholly upon 
the'^eportsof ^P(x^i/and his Accomplices; elfi: 
it would be impoQible that any Map could have 
the Impudence to write (uch % Pamphlet. as I 
jiave mentiOTicd- ^ 


0\xt Neighbours^ whofeUnderJiandingsarejufti 
upon a Level with Ours (which perhaps arc none 
of the Brighte^) have a ftrong Contempt for 
nrioft Nations, but efpecially for Ireland: They 
look upon Us as a Sort of Sdnyage Irifh^ whoni 
bur Anceftors conquered fevcral hundred Years 
ago, and if I (hould defcribc the Britons to you 
as they were in Cafar^s Time, when they pain f-- 
ed their Bodies^ or cloathed themfehes with the 
Skins ofBeafts^^l (hould adtiill as reafonablyas 
they do* However they are fo iar to be excufed 
in Relation to the prefent Subjed, that, hearing 
only one Side of the Caufe^ and having neither 
Opportunity nor Curiofity to examine the 0/;&^r, 
they believe a Lye merely for their Ea(e, and 
conclude, becaufe Mi. Wood pretends to have 
Power ^ he hath alfo Reafon on his Side. 

Therefore to let you fee how this Cafe is re- 
prefented m-Engtandhy PFbodandi his Adherents, 
I have thought it proper to extrad out of that 
Pamphlet a few of thofe Notorious Falflioods in 
point oiFadi and Reafoning contained therein 5 
the Knowledge whereof will confirm my Coun- 
try-menr in their Own Right Sentiments, when 
they witt fee by comparing both, how much their 
Enemies are in the Wrong. 

Firft The Writer, pofitively aflerts, That 
Wood^^ Halfpence were Current among us for fe^ 
foeral Months with the univerfal Approbation of 

K 4 ^// 

%s4 ^be Drapxer's Letters, 

^U Peopky Without me Jitigle Gaiit'-fayer^ ani 
we all to a Man thought our fehes Happy in 
having them. 

Secondly, He affirms, T^hat we were drawn 
into a Dijlihe of them only byjbme Cunning Evil^ 
4efigningMen among usy who opp^ed this Patent 
tff^oodi to get another for themfehoes. 

Thirdly, That thofe who mofi declared at firjt 
agati^ Wopd'i patent were the very Men who, 
i^ntendto get another for their own Advantage. 

Fourthly, That our Parliament and Privy^ 
^ounciiy H^e Lord Mayor and Aldermen of Dubu 
Kn, the Grand-Curies and Merchants^ and in 
fiort the whole Kingdom^ nay the very Dogs (as 
he cxpreflcth it) were fond of thofe Halfpence^ 
^11 they wereinfl^m^dby thofe few defgning Per^ 
fom ajorefaid. 

Eitchly, He fays direftly, That all thofe who. 
oppofed the Halfpence were Papifit and Enemies 
to King George, 

Thus far I am confident the moft Ignorant a- 
mong you can fa^ly fwear from your own Know- 
ledge, that the Author, is a moft notorious Lyar 
ix\ every Article j the direft contrary being (a 
ruatiifcft to. the whole Kingdom, that if Occafi-^ 
pn required -, We might get it confirmed under 
Five hundred, tboufand Hands. 

Sixthly, He would perfuade us, That if we 
fftll Five Shillings iporth of our Goods or Manu^ 


L E T T E R IV. IJ7 

foBures f or T*wo Shillings and Feur-pende w&rth . 
0f Copper^ although the Copper were melted dtmn^ 
and that we could get Five Shillings in Gold and 
Silver for the /aid Goods^ yet to take the /aid Iwa 
Shillings and Four-pence in Copp£r^ would ba 
greatly for cur Advantage. 

And Laftly, He makes us a very feir Ofifer, 
ts empowered by Wood^ That if we will take off 
^wo hundred thoufand Founds in his Half^encf 
for our Goods^ and likewife pay him I'hreepcc 
Cent. Intereftfor TUnrtyTedrSyforanJIundred 
and ^wmly thoufanjd Founds (at which be com-- 
putes the Coinage above the Intrinfck Value of the 
Copper) for the Loan of bis Coin^ he will after 
that I'ime give us good Money for what Half- 
fence will be then left. 

Let cpe place this offer in as clear a Light as I 
can to (hew the unfupportable Villainy and Im-r 
pudence of that incorrigible Wretch. Firft (fajfs 
he) I will fend Ttwo hundred thoufand Founds of 
my Coin into your Country y the Copper I compute 
to be in real Value Eighty thoufand Founds^ (fnd 
I charge you with an Hundred and twenty thou^ 
Jand Founds for the Coinage y fo that you feel 
lend you an Hundred and twenty tboujhnd Found$ 
for Thirty TearSy for which you Jhall pay me 
ftbree per Cent. That is to fay Three thoufand 
l^ix hundred Pounds per Ann. which in Thirty 
Ofeari will amount to an Hundred and eight tbou^ 


JimdPwnds. And when tbefe Thirty Ttars aft 
e^redy return me my Copper and I ntditghe 
you Good Money for it. 

This is- the Propo&l made to us'by fToodin 
.&ac Pamphkt Writtbiby one of hk Commijion^ 
.ers\ an4 the Audior is (uppoled to be the (ame 
bifiunous Coleby one of his Under^Swearers at the 
Committee of Councily a^rho was tryed for Rob- 
iit^tbe ^re^Jurybere^ where he was an Undcri- 

By this Propo(al he wiU firft receive Two hunr 
dted thouiand Pounds, in Goods or Sterling for 
as much Copper as he Values at Eighty thouiand 
Pounds, but iii Reality nqt worth "Hiirty thou- 
iand Pounds. Secondly, he wiH receiye for Im 
iterefl: an Hundred and Eight thoufand Pounds. 
Atid when our Children conje Thirty Yearf 
jbenceto return hi? Half-pence upon his Execu- 
tors (for before that Time he will be probably 
gone to his pwn Place) thofe Ejacutors will very 
reafonably rged them as Raps and Counterfeits, 
which probably they will be^ and Millions of 
theni of his own Coinage. 

Methinks I am fond of (iich a Dealer as th» 
who mends every Day upon our Hands like a 
Dutch Reckoning, where, if you difpute the Un- 
reafonablenefs and Exorbitance of die Bill, the 
Landlord (hall bring it up every Time with new 


I. E T T E R IV. I j^ 

Although chde and the bke Pani^lcm 
pubiifli'd by Wood in London be aitogcther^'unp 
Icnomi here, where no body could read them 
without as much Indignation as Contempt would 
alloW; yet I thought it proper to g^c you ^ 
Specinnen how thfi Man enfipbys his Time, 
where he Rides alqne without one Creature tg 
jqontradift him^ vdiile our few Friends djcrp 
wonder at ouir Silence, and the £^j:^ in geac^ 
ral, if they think of this Matter at all, impute 
our Refulkl tp Wilfulnefs or DifafffBioni juft 
^ Wood m^ his Iliretings^e pleafed to re- 

But although our Arguments attf tsot (uf^ 
fcred to be printed in Et^Jandy yet the Con- 
(equence wiH be of little Moment. Let Wood 
endeaviDur to Perfuade the People ^bere^ that 
vfc ought to Receive his Coin, and let me Qm^ 
fvince pur People H^re^ that they ought to Re^ 
jfS it under pain of our utter Undoing. And 
iJben let him do his Beji and his Worfi, 

Before I conclude, I muft beg Leave in aU 
Humility to tell Mr. Wo$d^ that he is guilty of ' 
great Indifcrettm^ by caufing fo Honoursdile a 

Name as that of Mr. W to be mentioned 

61 ofien, aad in fuch a Manner, upon his Oc- 
f»fiob. A (hoK Paper printed at BriH^l and 
]re-{»rinted here reports Mr. Wad Cd &y, . diat 
\ic wonders at tie Impudence and Injidenee tf 
' ^ ' the 

i^a 7*^^ Dr API En's Letters. 

the Irifli in refufing bis Coitiy and what he will 
do when Mr. W- — ctmes to I'own. Where, 
by the Way, he is tniftaken, for it is the 7ra# 
Englijh Pef>ple oi Ireland^ who refufc it, al- 
though we take it for granted that the Irijh 
will do fo too whenever they are asked. He 
orders it to be printed in another Paper, that 

Mr. W will cram bis Brafs down our 

Throats. Sometimes it is given out that wc 
muft either take tbefe Half-fenceor eat our 
Brogues. And, in another News-Letter but of 
Yefteirday, we read that the feme great Man 
bath /worn to make us /wallow bis Coin in 

This brings to my Mind the known Story 
of a Scotch Man , who receiving Sentence of 
Death, with all the Circumftances of flJ^»|7»^, 
Beheadings gartering y Embowellingy and rfic" 
like, cried out, What need all this Cookery? 
And I think we have Reafbn to ask the fame 
Queftion; for if we believe Woody here is a 
Dinner getting ready for us, and you fee the 
Bill of ParCy and I am forty the Drink was 
forgot, which might eafily be (upply'd witk 
Melted Lead znd Flaming Pitch. 

What vile Words are thefe to put into tl« 
Mouth of a great Counfdlor, ,in high Truft 
wkh his Majefty, and lodked upon a^ a prime 
Mimfteri If Mr. /iTW Jiath no better a Ma»- 

L E T T E R IV, 141 

xier of reprcfenting his Patrons, when I come 
to be a Great Man^ he (hall never be fuffcred 
to attend at my hevee. This is not the Style 
of a Great Minifter, it favours too much of the 
Kettle 2xA the Furnace^ and came entirely out 
of Mr. JVoois Forge. 

As for the Threat of making us eat our 
BrogueSy we need not be in Pain ; for if his 
Coin (hould pa6, that Unpolite Covering Jor 
the Feet would no longer be a National Re^ 
froachi becaufe then we (hould have neither 
JSboe nor Brqgue left in the Kingdom. But here 
the Falfhood of Mr. ff^ood is fairly detedcdj 
for I am confident Mr. ^— never heard of a 
Brcgue in his whole Life. 

As to Swallowing thefe Half-pence in Fire-^ 
Ballsy , it is a Story equally improbable. For to 
execute this Operation the whole Stock of Mn 
Woo^s Coin and Metal muft be nielted down, 
and molded into hollow Balls with Wild-Jire^ 
no bigger than a Reafonable Throat can be 
able to fwalloW. Now the Metal he hath 
prepared, and already coined ^vill^ amount 10 
SI leaft Fifty Millions of Half-pence to be SwaU 
lowed hy a Million and a Half of People; (b 
that allowing Two Half-pence to each Ball^ 
there will be about. Seventeen Balk of Wild^ 
Fire a-piccc ip be Iwallowed by every Per- 


ijfr the Drapier^s Letters^ 

fbn in this Kingdom; and to adminifter this 
Dofe, there cannot be convcniendy fewer than' 
Tifty Thou&rid Operators^ allowing one Ope^ 
rator to . every Thirty; which, confidering tfie 
Squeamijhnefs 6f fortie Stoinachs, and the Pee-^ 
vijhnefs of toung Cbildreh^ is but reafbnaUel 
Now, under CorrefticMi of beted: Judgments, I 
think the Trouble and Charge of (uch ah Ex- 
' periment would exceed the Profit and there- 
fore I take this Report to be fpurious^ or, at 
lea{^ ocAf a new Scheme of Mr. Wood him- 
(clf, which, to make it pais the better in /f^ 
lar^d^ he would Father upon a Mimjier of 

But I will now demonftrate, beyond allCdx- 

tradiftion, that Mr. W is againft this Pro* 

je£t of Mr. Woody and is an entire Friend to 
Ireland^ only by this one invincible Argument, 
That he has the Univerial Opinion of being 
a Wife Man, an able Minifter, and in all his 
Proceedings purfiiing the ^rue Xnfereji of 
the Kir^ his Mafter: And that as his Inte- 
grity is above all Corruption^ fo is his For^ 
tune above all Tiemptation. I reckon there- 
fere we are perfeSly (afe from that Corner^ 
aftd (hall never be under the Neceffity of Con- 
tending with fo Formidable a Powtr^ but be 


L E T T E R IV. i43f 

left to poffcfi oviz Brcgues mA Potatoes in 
Peaciy as Remote from TtJnmder ^i i»e are from 

My Dear Country-men^ 
Tour Loving Felhw-SubjeSl^ 
Fellow-Sufferer^ and 
Humble Servant^ 

oa T3, 



Seasonable Advice to the Gra^d 
Jurjy concerning the Bill preparing 
againjl //?(? P r i n t e R of the precede 
ing Letters 

Hpgl^ I N c E a Bill is preparing for the Grand 
K^flH ^^^y ^^ ^^^ againft the Printer of 
JhnB I the Drafter's lafi Letter; there arc 
feveral Things maturely to be confidered by 
thofe Gentlemen, before whom this Bill is t6 
come, before they detemiine upon it. 

First, they arc to cohfider, that the Au- 
thor of the (aid Pamphlet^ did wiite three o^ 
ther Difcourfes on the fame Subjeft; which^ 
inftead of being cenfur'd, were univer^ly ap- 
proved by the whole Natidn, and were al- 
lowed to have raifed, and continued that Spi- 
rit among us, which hitherto hath kept out 
TTood's Coin. For all Men will allow^ that, if 
thofe Pamphlets had not been writ, his Coiii 
muft have over-run the Nation fome Mbnths agb^ 

' S£CbNDLt| 

Seas6na8le Advicie, (^c. t^^ 

Secondly, it is to he con ji^er'd, that this 
Pamphlet, againll which a Proclamation hath 
been iflu'd, is writ by the fame Author^ that 
no Body ever doubted the Innocence and Good- 
nefi of his Defign, that he appears through 
the whole Tenor of it, to be a Loyal SuhjeSi 
to his Majefty, and devoted to the Houfe of 
Hanover^ and declares himfelf, in a Manner, 
peculiarly Zealous againft the Pretender: And 
if fuch a Writer in four feveral Treaties on fo 
nice a Subjeft, where a Royal Patent is concerned, 
and where it was neceflary to {peak of England 
and of Liberty, fliould in one or two Places 
happen to let fall an inadvertent Expreffion, it 
would be hard to condemn him, after all the 
Good he hath done; efpecially when we con- 
fider, that he could have no poflible Defiga 
in View, cither of Honour or Profit, but purely 
The Good of his Country. 

Thirdly, it ought to be well confider'd, 

whether any one Expreffion in the faid Pamphlet 

be really liable to a juft Exception, much Icfi 

to be found Wicked^ Malicious^ Seditious^ rem 

JkBing upon his Majefty and his Miniftry^ &c/ 

The two Points in that Pamphlet, which it 
is laid, the Profecutors intend chiefly to fix on, 
are, Firft, where the Author mentions the 
Penner of the King*s Anfwer. Firft it is well 
known, his Majefty is not Mafter of the Eng^ 

L lijh 

1^6 Seasonable Advice 

lijh Tongue, and therefore it is ncceflary that 
fomc other Perfon fliould be employed to Pen 
what he hath to Oxy or write in that Lan- 
guage- Secondly, his Majeft/s Anfwer is not 
in the firft Perfon, but the third. It is not 
fiud, fTe are concern' Jy otOur Royal Predecejfors^ 
hut, His Majejly is concerned \ and his Royal Pre- 
decejfore. By which it is plain, thcfe are pro- 
perly not the Words of his Majeftyj but (iip- 
pos'd to be taken from him, and tranfinitted 
hither by one of his Minifters. Thirdly, it 
will be eafily feen, that the Author of the Pam- 
phlet delivers his Sentiments upon this Parti- 
cular, with the utmoft Caution and Refpe^ 
as any impartial Reader will obferve. 

Thefecond Paragraph, which, it is (aid, w3I 
be taken Notice of as 4 Motive to find the 
Bill, is, what the Author (ays of Ireland hcr 
ing a Dependent Kingdom. He explains all the 
Dependency he knows cS it, which is a Law 
made in Ireland^ whereby it is enaded, that 
whoever is King of England, Jhall be Kirig of 
Ireland. Before this Explanation be condemn- 
ed, and the Bill found upon it, it would be 
proper that fome Lav^rjrers (hould fully inform 
the Jury, what other Law there is, either 
Statute or Common, for this Dependency \ and 
if there be no Law, there is no Tran(greffion* 

The Fourth Thing very maturely to be con- 


• fldered by the Jury, 13, what Influence thdt 
finding the Bill may have upon the Kingdom. 
The People in genei-al find no Fault in the 
i)rapier\ laft Book, any more than in the 
three former, and therefore when they hear i: 
•is condemned by a Grand Jury of Dublin^ 
they will conclude it is done in Favour of 
Wood's Coin, they will think wc of this Town 
have changed our Minds, and intend to take 
thofe Half-pence, and therefore that it will b^ 
in Vain for thetn to (land out : So that the 
Qucftion comes to this : Which will be of the 
worft Confequehce; To let pafs one or two 
Expreflions, at the worft only trnwary in a 
Book written for the Publick Service, oi to 
leave a free open Paflage for Wood'sV^t^Ss to over-» 
run us, by which we fliall be undon'e for ever? 
The fitth thing to be confidered, is, that the 
Members of the Grand Jury being Merchants, 
and Principal Shop-keepers, can have no Suit-* 
able l^emptaiion oifered them as a Recompenec 
for the Mifchicf they will fuifcr by letting in 
this Coin, ftor can be at any Lofs or Danger 
by rejeding the Bill : They do not expe£t any 
Employments in the State,- to make up in thciir 
own private Advantage^ the Defl:Ki£tion of their 
Gountry: Whereas thofe who go about toAdvifey 
Entice^ or 'threaten thenti td find that Bill, have 
great Employments, which they have a Mind 

\j % to 

148 Seasonable Advice 

to keep, or to get greater^ which was like- 
wife the Cafe of ail thofe who figned to haye 
the Author profecuted. And therdbre it is 
known, that his Grace the Lord Arch-Bifliop 
of Dublin^ (b renowned for his Piety andWif- 
dom and Love of his Country, abfolutdy re- 
fufed to condemn the Book, or the Author. 

Laftly, it ought to be confidered what Con- 
fequcnce the finding^he Bill, may have upon 
a poor Man perfedly innocent, I mean the 
Printer. A Lawyer may pick out Expreffions, 
and make them liable to Exception, where 
no other Man is able to find any: But how 
can it be fuppos'd that an ignorant Printer 
can be fuch a Critickf He knew the Author's 
Defign was honeft, and approved by the whole 
Kingdom r He advifed with Friends, who told 
him there was no Harm in the Book, and he 
could fee none himfelf. It was fent him in an 
unknown Hand, but the (ame in which he re- 
ceived the three former. He and his Wife have 
offered to take their Oaths, that they knew 
not the Author; and therefore to find a Bill, 
that may bring a Punifliment upon the Inno- 
cent, will appear very hardy to fay no worfe. 
For it will be impoflible to find the Author, 
unlefs he will pleafe to difcover himfelf, al- 
though I wonder he ever concealed his Name. 
But I fuppofe what he did at firft out ofMo- 


to the Grand-Jury. 1^9 

defly, he continues to do out of Prudence. 
God protect Us and Him. 

I will conclude all with a Fable, afcribcd to 
Demfthenes: He had ferved the People of 
Athens with great Fidelity, in the Station of 
an Orator^ when, upon a certain Occafion ap- 
prehending to be delivered over to his Ene- 
mies, he told the AthenianSy his Countrymen, 
the following Story: Once upon a tinie> the 
Wolves defired a League with the Shee^^ upon 
this Condition ; that the Caufe of Strife might 
be taken away, which was, the Shepherds and 
Majiiffs: This being granted, xhtWahet^ with- 
out all Fear, made Havock of the Sbeef^ 

ffovember ii> 


L 5 Aa 

( ifo ) 

An Extraci of a Book^ Entimled, an 
exaB CclkBion of the Ddatffs cf 
the Houfe of Commons^ held at 
Weftaiinftcr, Odober ii, 1680. 
Pag. 150. 

RESOJ.UT10NS of the Houfe of Commons in 
England, Nov. the 13 th, 1680. 

SEVERAL Perfons being cxamin'd about 
the Difmifling a Grand Jurv in Mid- 
fefex'y the Houfe came to the following JJ^- 

Resolved, That the Difcharging of a 
iGrand Jury, by any Judge, before the End 
of the Term, AflSzcs, or Seflfions, while Mat- 
ters are under their Confideration , and ndc 
prefented, is Arbitrary, Illegal, Deftruftive to 
publick Juftice, a manifeft Violation of his Oath, 
and is a Means to Subvert the Fundamental 
Laws of this Kingdom. 

Resolved, That a Committee be appoirited 
to examine the Proceedings of the Judges in 
Wefiminjier-Hall^ and Report the fame with 
their Opinion therein to this Houfe. 


To the Right Honourable the 

Lord Vifcount Molefworth. 

They compafled me about alfo with Words of Deceit,^ 
and fought againft me without a Caufe. 

For my Love they are my Adverfaries, but I give my 
felf unto Prayer. 

And they have rewarded me Evil for Good, and Ha- 
tred for my Love. PfaL cix. 3, 4, 5. 

Seek not to be Judge, being not able to take away Ini- 
quity, left at any Time thou Fear the Perfon of the 
Mighty, and lay a ftumbling Block in the Way of 
thy UprightnciS. 

Offend not againft the Multitude of a City, and then 
thou flialt not caft thy felf down among the People. 

Bind not one Sin upon another, for in One thou IhalC 
not be unpunifiied. Ecclus. vii. 6, 7, 8. 

Non jam prima peto Mnejlheus ^ neque vlncere certa: 
^uanquam O! Sedfupcrent^ quthus hoc^ Neptune^ dedijli. 


Dire<9:ions to the Printer- 

Mr. Harding, 

\IIEN I fent you my former Pa^ 
pers^ I cannot fay^ I intended you 
either Good or Hurt, and yet you 
have happened through my Means 
to receive Both. I pray God deliver you from 
cny more of the Latter, and increafe /^^ Former. 
Your Trade^ particularly in this Kingdom^ is of 
all others the moji unfortunately CircumfiantU 
ated^y for as you deal in the mojl wor thief s kind 
of^rajh^ the Penny ProduSlions of Penny lejs 
Scriblers^ fo you often venture your Liberty and 
fometimes your hives ^ for the Pur chafe of half 
n Crown , and by your own Ignorance^ are 
^mifhed for other Mens ASiions. 

J am afraid^ you in particular^ think you 
iume Reafon to complain of Me^ for your own 
md your Wife's Confinement in Prifon^ to your 

f great 

154 Direction's to /i&tf Phiwter. 
great Expence, as well as Hardjhipj and fir a 
Profecution ftill impending. But I will fell 
you^ Mr. Harding, bow that Matter Jlandt. 
Since the Prefs hath lain under Jb JlriSi an 
Infpe£lio% thofe who have a Mind to inform 
the Worldy are become Jo cautious^ as to keep 
themfehes if pojjible out of the Way of Darker. 
My Cujiom is to dictate to a Prentice who cam 
write in a feigned Handy iind what is written^ 
we fend to your Houfe by a Black-guard JB^. 
But at the fame time I do affure you upon 
my Reputation^ that I never did fend you any 
thingy for which I thought you could pojjibly be 
called to an Account. And you will be my 
Witnefs that I always defred you by a Later 
to take fome good Advice before you ventured 
to Prints becaufe I knew the Dexterity 5/*D^ 
ers in the Law, at finding out fomething to 
faften on^ where no Evil is meant. I am told 
indecdy that you did accordingly confult feveral 
very able Perfons^ and even Some who after^ 
wards appeared againft: you: To which I can 
only anjwer-^ that you mujl either change your 
Advifers, or determine to print nothing that 
comes from /^ Drapier. 

/ defre you will fend the inclofed Letter^ ■ 
direSled to My Lord Vifcount Molefworth at his 
Houfe at Brackdenflown near Swords-, but I 
would have it feiit Printed, for the Convenience 


pf bis L&r^^ifs Readings iecaufetbis Counter^ 
feit Hand of 'my Prentice is not wry legibk. 
And ifycu think Jit to publijh ity I would have 
yw firji get it Read over carefully byfome No- 
table Lawyer: I am ajfured you will find e^ 
nough of them who are Friends to the Dra- 
pier, and will do it without a Fee^ which I 
am afraid you can ill afford after all pur 
Expences. For although I have taken Jb much 
Care, that I think it impoj/ible to find a To^ 
pick out of the following Papers, for fending 
you again to Prifon^ yet I will not venture to 
f?e your Guarantee. 

T'his enfuing Letter contains onlyajhort Ac- 
count of my felf and an Humble Apology for 
my former Pamphlets^ ejpecially the Laft, with 
tittle Mention of Mr, Wood or his Half-pence, 
becaufe I have already faid enough upon that 
SubjeB, until Occafion Jhall be given for New 
Fears ; and in that Cafe, you may perhaps bear 
from me again. 

I am. 

From my Shop in JJ^^ Friend 

St. Francis ftrees 
Dfc. 14, 1714. 

. .* and Servant^ 

: M.B. 


tS6 Di RECT IONS ft /i6^ Printer; 


For want of Intcrcourfe between yoa and 
Me> which I never will fufFer; your People 
•re apt to make very gro6 Errours in the 
Pte6, which I dcfirc you will provide a* 


To the Right Honourable the LorJ 
Vifcount Mole/worth, at, his Houg; 
at Brakdenjiown near Swords, ^ 

My LORD, -J. 

Reflect toa late on jthe Maxir^ 
of common Obfervers, That tho^ 
who meddle in Matters out <k 
their Calling ^ will have Rcaf 
=■ Ion to repent; which is no 
verified in me: For by engaging in the Trai 
of a \yriter, I have drawn upon my felf cL, 
Difpleafure of the Government, fignUied by a 
Proclamation^ promifing a Reward of Thrs 
Hundred, Pounds to the ftrd faiti^ulSah^ 
who fhall be able and inclined to inform al 
gainft me. To which I may add the laud^ 
blc Zeal and Induftry of my Lord Chief Jujiict 


1^8 ^ Dkajier's Letters. 

in his Endeavours to difcovcr (b Dangerous ^ 
Perfbn. Therefore whether I repent or no,^ 
I have certainly Caufe to do fo, and the conv 
mon Obfervation ftill ftands good. 

It will fometimes happen, I know not how, 
in the Courfe of Human Affairs, that a 
Nfan (hall be made liable to Legal Animad- 
verfions, where he has nothing to anfwer 
fcr, cither to God or his Country ; and con-^ 
demned at Wejlminjier Hall for what he w^ill 
never be charged with at the Day of^udg- 

After ftri£tiy examining my own Heart, and 
confiilting (bme Divines of great Reputation, I 
cannot accufe my felf cf any Malice or Wtcked^ 
nejs again/} the Publick} pf any Defigns iojm 
S edition y oireJleSling on the King and his Mi- 
jdjlersy or of endeavouring to alienate the Af^ 
feBims of the People of this Kingdom from thofe 
^England. All I can charge my felf with, » 
k weak Attempt to ferve a Nation in Danger 
Df Deftrudion by a moft wicked and malici- 
ous Prcgeftor, without waiting until I were 
called to its Affiftance; which Attempt, howc^ 
^cr it may perhaps give me the Title oiPrag^ 
Jnatical and Overweening^ will never lie a 
Burthen upon my Confcience. God knows 
whether I may not with all my Caution have 
already, ron my felf into Danger, by offering 



thus mucb in my own Vindication. For I have 
heard of a Judge^ who, upon the Criminar$ 
Appeal to the Dreadful Day rf Judgment^ told 
him he had incurred a Premunirey for appealing 
to a Foreign JurifdiSiion : And of another in 
WaleSy who feverely checked the Prifoner for of^ 
fering the fame Plea, taxing him with reflcfting 
on the Court by fuch a Comparifon, becaufe 
Comparifims were odious. 

But in Order to make fomc Excufe for being 
more fpeculative than others of my Condition, I 
defire your Lordfliip's Pardon, while I am doing* 
a very foolifli thipg, which is, to give you fome * 
little Account of my (elf 

I was bred at a Free-School, where I acquired 
fome little Knowledge in the Latin Tongue, \ 
ferved my Apprenticefliip in London^ and therc^ 
fet up for my felf with good Succc(s, till by the 
Death (f fome Friends^ and the Misfortunes of ^ 
Others^ I returned into this Kingdom, andbegarf 
to employ my Thoughts in cultivating the WooU 
ten ManufaSiure through all its Branches; where* 
in I met vwth great Difcouragement and powerful 
Oppofcrs, whofe Objedions appeared to me 
very ftrange and Angular. They argued, that 
the People oi England would be offended if out;. 
Manu&3aires were brought to equal theirs : and 
even fome of the Weaving Trade were my Ene- 
mies^ which I could not but look upon a& abfurJt 


i6o ^he D».apier's Letters. 

and unnatural I remember your Lordfhip atr 
that Time did me the Honour to come into my 
Shop^ where I (hewed you a piece of Black and 
White Stuff joA fent from the Dyer^ whidi you 
were pleafed to approve of, and be my Cuftomcr 
for it. 

However, I was fo mortified, that I refolved for 
the foture to fit quietly in my Shop, and deal in 
common Goods like the reft of my- Brethren ; tfll 
it happened fome Months ago, confidering with 
my felf, that the lower and poorer Sort of Petite 
wanted a plain^ Jl^ongy coarfe Stuffy to defend 
them againfl coldEaJlerlyWindSy which then blew 
'oery fierce and blafiingfor a long "Time together ^ 
I contrived one on purpofe, which CJd very wdl 
all over the Kingdom, and preferved many Thou- 
fands from Agues. I then made a Second and a 
^hird kind of Stuffs for the Gentry v^ith the fame 
Succefe, infomuch, that an Ague hath hardly 
been heard offer fome time. 

This incited me fofar, that I ventured upon a 
Fourth piece made of the beft Irijh Wool I could 
get, and I thought it Grave and Rich enough to 
be worn by the beft Lord or Judge of the Land. 
But of late, fome Great Folks complain, as I hear, 
that when they had it on, they felt a Shuddering 
in their Limbs^ and have thrown it off in a Rage, 
curiing to Hell the poor Drapier who invented 
it; fo that I am determined nevci: to work for 


L E T T E R V; i^* 

Fer/onsof ^ality again^ except far your Lori« 
Jhip and a wry feifi mere. 

I afluirc your Lordftup, upon the Word of art 
Hdneft Citizen, that I am not richer by the Va-* 
kie of one of Mr* W(^d\ Half-pence with thd 
Sate of all the feveral Stuffi I have contrived j for 
I give the whole profit to the Dyers and Prejfersi 
And therefore I hope you will plafe to believe! 
that no other Motive, bcfidcs the Love of my 
Country, could engage me to buiic my Head and 
Hands to the Lofs of myTime^ and the Gain o( 
nothing but Vexation and III Will. 

I have now in Hand one Tiece of Stuff to IdC 
woven on purpofe for your Lordfliipj although 
I mi^t be afhamed to ofier it you, after I have 
confefled that it will be made only from the 
Shreds and Remnants of the Wool employed in tbi 
Farmer k However I (hall wdr^ it up as well a^ 
I tail, and at worftj you need only give it among 
your Tenants. 

i am very fehfiblc how ill ybUr Lordfliip is iika 
to be entertained with the Pedantry of a Drapief 
in the Terms of his dwii Trade* How will thd 
Matter be mended, when you find me entring a^ 
gain, though very fparingly^ into an Affair of 
State ? For fijch is now grown the Controverfici 
with Mr* Woods i^fome great Lawyers arc to bd 
arpditcd. And as often it happens at Play^ 
that Men begin with Farthings^ and go on to 
M Gold 

i6x 7i&^DRAPrBR*s Letters. 
Goldy till fome of them lofe their Eftates and die 
in Jayl ; fo it may poffibly fall out in my Cafe, 
that hy playing too long with Mr. Wood's Half- 
pence, I may be drawn in to pay a Fine^ double 
to the Reward for Betraying me, be fenr to Pri- 
fon, znAnot be delivered thence 'till I j}:>all have 
fayed the utter moft Farthing. 

There are, My Lord, three forts of Perfons 
with whom I am refolved never to difpute ; a 
High-way-man with a Piftol at my Bread, a 
^roop of Dragoons who come to plunder my 
Houfe, and a Man of the Law who can make a 
Merit of accufing me. In each of thefe Cafo^ 
'Which are almojl thefame^ the beft Method is to 
keep out of the Way^ and the next Beft is to deli- 
ver your Money ^ furrender your Houfe ^ and cori'- 
fefs nothing. 

I am told that the two points in my laft Let- 
ter, firom which an Occafion of Offence hadi 
been taken, are where I mention his Majefty^s 
Anfwer to the Addrefi of the Houfe of Lords 
uponMr.^W's Patent, and where I difcourfe 
upon Ireland's being a Dependent Kingdom. As 
to the Former, I can only fay, that I have treated 
it with the utmoft Refped and Caution, and I 
thought itneceffary to (hew where Wood's Patent 
differed in many eflential parts, from all othci^ 
that ever had been granted, becaufe the contra- 
ry had for want of due Information been fo 


L E T T E R V. 163 

ftrongly and (6 largely afferted. As ta the other, 
of Ireland's Dependency^ I confeft to have often 
heard it mentioned, but was never able to under- 
ftand v^hat it meant. This gave me the Curiofity 
to enquire among feveral Eminent Lawyers, who 
profefled they knew nothing of the Matter; I 
then turned over all the Statutes of both King- 
doms vsrithout the leaft Information, further than 
an Iri/h Ad that I quoted of the 33d oiHen-- 
ryVIII. uniting Ireland to England under one 
King. I cannot fay, I was forry to be di(ap- 
ipointed in my Search, becaufe it is certain, I 
could be contented to depend only upon God and 
my Prince and the Laws of my own Countrey^ 
after the Manner of other Nations. But (ince 
my Betters are of a different Opinion^ and defire 
further Dependencies^ I (hall readily fubmit, not 
infifting on the Exception I made of M B. Dra^ 
pier. For indeed that Hint was borrowed from 
an idle Story I had heard in England^ which 
• perhaps may be common and beaten ; but becaufe 
it infnuates neither Treafon nor Sedition^ I will 
juft barely relate it. 

Some Hundred Years ago when the Peers were 
fa great that the Commons were looked upon as 
little better than their Dependents^ a Bill was 
brought in for making fome new Additions to 
the Power and Privileges of the Peerage. After 
it was read, one Mr. Drue a Member of the 
M X Houfe, 

1(54 ^^^ Drap I er's Letters. 
Houfe, ftood up, and (aid, he very much ap- 
proved the Bill, and would give his Vote to have 
it paft; but however, for fome Reafons beft 
known to himfelf, he defired that a Claufe might 
be inferred for eMepting the Family of the Dtues. 
The^ Odnefs of the Propofition taught o- 
thei^s to refled a little, and the Bill was thrown 

Whether I were miftaken, or Went too 
Far in examining the Dependency^ muft be left 
to the impartial Judgn^ent of the World, as wdl 
as to the Courts of Judicature, although indeed 
not in (b effectual and decijive a Manner. But 
to affirm, as I hear (bme do, in order to coun- 
tenance a fearful and fervile Spirit, that this 
point did not belong to my SubjeSt^ is a Falfe and 
Foolifli Objeftion. There were feveral (canda- 
bus Reports induftrioufly fpread by Wood and 
his Accomplices to difcourage all Oppofitiaa a- 
gainft; his infamous Projed* They gave it out 
that we were prepared for a Rebellion^ that we 
difputed the King's Prerogative^ and were fliak- 
ing off our Dependency. The firft went fo for, 
and obtained fo much Belief againft the moft 
' yifible Demonftrations to the contrary, that a 
'great Perfon of this Kingdom, now in England^ 
(cnt over fuch an Account of it to his Friends, 
as would make any good^ubjed both grieve and 
tremble. I thought it therefore neceflary to 


L E T T E R v. i6s 

treat that Calumny as it dcferved. Then I 
proved by an invincible Argument, that we 
could have no Intention to difpute his Majefty s 
Prerogative^ becaufe the Prerogative was not 
concerned in the Qucftion, the Civilians and 
Lav^ers of all Nations agreeing that Copper is 
not Money. And laftly to clear us from the Im- 
putation of (baking off our Dependency \ I (hew- 
ed wherein as I thought this Dependency confift- 
ed, and cited the Statute above-mentioned made 
in Irelandy by which it is enafted, that whoever 
is King of Enghnd Jhall be Kingoflidzwd^ and 
that the Two Kingdoms (hall htfor ever knit to- 
gether under one King. This, as I conceived, 
did wholly acquit us of intending to break our 
Dependency y becaufe it was altogether out of our 
Power, for furely no King of England will ever 
confent to the Repeal of this Statute. 

But upon this Article I am charged wit|i a hea- 
vier Accu(ation, It is faid I Went too Far, 
when I declared, that if ever the " Pretender 
Jhould come to be fixed upon the Throne of Eng- 
land (which God forbid) I would fo far venture 
to tranfgrefs this Statute^ that I would lofe the 
lajl Drop of my Blood before Iwouldfubmit to 
him as King ^Ireland. 

This I hear on all Sides, is the ftrongeft and 

weightieft Objection againft me, and whiph hath 

given the rppf^ Offence y that I (houldbc (b bold 

M 3 to 

1 66 The D R A^p I er's Le T T E R s. 
to declare againft a direft Statute, and that any 
Motive how ftrong foever, could make me rcjed 
a King whom Eftgland (hould receive. Now if 
in defending my felf from this Accufation I (hould 
freely confefs, that I Went too Far, that the 
Expreflion was very indifcreet, although occa- 
(loned by my Zeal for his prefent Majefty and 
his Proteftant Line in the Houfe of Hannover^ 
that I fliall be careful never to offend again ih 
the like kind, and tliat I hope this free Ac-, 
knowledgement and Sorrow for my Error, will 
be fome Attonement and a little foftenthc Hearts 
of my powerful Adverfaries : I (ay, if I fliould 
offer fuch a Defence as this, I do not doubt but 
fome People would wreft it to an ill Meaning by 
fome fpiteful hiterpretation, and therefore fince 
I cannot think of any other Anfwer, which that 
Paragraph can admit, I will leave it to the Mctr 
cy of every Candid Reader. 

I will now venture to tell your Lordfliip a S6^ 
cret, wherein I fear you are too deeply concerned. 
You will therefore pleafe to know that this Habi^; 
of Writing and Difcourfmg, wherein I unfortu-r 
nately differ from almoji the whole Kingdom, and 
am apt to Grate the Ears of more than I could 
wi(h, was acquired during my Apprenticefliip in 
London^ and a long Refidencc there after I had 
fet up for my felf Upon my Return and Set- 
tlement here, I thought I had only changed one 


L E T T E R V. 1^7 

Countrey of Freedom for another. I liad been 
long converfing with the Writings of your Lord-' 
(hip, Mr. Lock^ Mr. MolineauXy Colonel Sidney 
and other Dangerous Authors, who talk of L/- 
berty as a Blejfing^ to which the whole Race of 
Mankind hath an original T!itle^ whereof nothir^ 
hut unlawful Force can diveji them. I knew a 
good deal of the feveral Gothick Inftitutions in 
F^urope^ and by what Incidents and Events they 
come to be deftroyed ; ^id I ever thought it the 
inoft uncontrolled and univerfally agreed Maxim, 
that Freedom confifis in a People being Governed 
by Laws made with their own Confenty and Sla^ 
very in the Contrary, I have been likewife told, 
and believe it to be true, that Liberty and Pro*- 
pertyy are Words of known Ufe and Signification 
in this Kingdom, and the very Lawyers pretend 
to underftand, and have them often in their 
Mouths. Thefe were the Errors which have 
mifled me, and to which alone I muft impute the 
fevcre Treatment I have received. But I (hall in 
Time grow Wifer^ and learn to conllder my 
Driver y the Road lam in, and with whom 1 am 
Yoked. This I will venture to (ay, that the 
boldeft and moft obnoxious Words I ever deliverr 
cd, would in Fngland have only expofed me as a 
ftupid Fool, who went to prove that the Sun 
Jhone in a clear Summer's Day, and I have Wit- 
nefles ready to depofe that your Lordfliip hath 
M 4 faid 

i69 ^he Drapier's Letters. 

faid and writ Fifty times worfe, and what is ftfll 
• an Aggravation, with in6nitcly more Wit and 
Learning, and ftronger Arguments : So. that as 
Politicks run, I do not know a Perfon of more 
exceptionable Principles than your fell; and if e- 
ver I fliail be difcovered, I think you will be 
bound in Honour to pay my Fine, ^nd ftipport 
me in Prifon ; or elfe I may chance to Inform a- 
gainft you by Way of Reprifak 

In the mean time, I beg your Lordfliip to re* 
ceive my Confeffion, that if there be any (iich 
thing as a Dependency of Ireland upon England^ 
otherwife than as I have explained it, qther by^ 
the Law of Gody of Nature^ oiReafm^ oi Na^ 
tionsy or of the Land (which I (hall never hereaf- 
ter conteft) then was the Proclamation agsiinft 
me, the moft Merciful that ever was put out, 
and inftead of accufing me as Malicious^ Wicked 
and Seditious^ it might hav^ l^en direfUy a$ 
guilty of High T*reafon^ 

' All I defire is, that the Gaufe of my Country 
againft Mr. Woodvcay not fuffer by any Inadver- 
tency of mine ; whether Ireland depend upon 
England^ pr only upon God^ the King arid the 
isaWy I hope no Man will aflcrt that it depends 
upon Mr, Wood. I ftiould be heartily forry that 
this Commendable Refentment agiainft me fliould 
gcoidcntally (and J hope^ what was never intend^ 
pd) ifaikea Damp upon that Spirit in all I^ank? 

LETTER V. 169 

and Corporations of Men agatnft the defperate , 
and ruinous Dcfign of Mr. Wood. Let my 
Countrc3mien blot out thofe Parts in my laft Let- 
ter which they diflike, and let no Rujl remain on 
my Swordy to cure the Wounds I have given to 
our moft mortal Enemy. When Sir Charles Sid^ 
ney was taking the Oaths, where feveral Things 
were to be Renounced^ he (aid he loved Renoun-- 
cingy asked if any more were to be Renounced^ 
for he was ready to Renounce as much as they pleat- 
fed. Although I am not fo thorough a Re- 
nouncer-y yet let me have but Good City Security 
againft this peftilent Coinage, and I (hall be rea- 
dy not only to Renounce every Syllable in all my 
Four Letters, but deliver them chearfuUy with 
my own Hands into tboje of the Common Hang* 
tnan^ to be burnt with no better Company tlian 
the Coiner's Effigies^ if any part of it hath 
cfcaped out of the Secular Hands of the Rab- 

But whatever the Sentiments oifome People 
may be, I think it is agreed that many of thofc 
who Subfcribed againft me, are on the Side of a 
vaft Majority in the Kingdom who oppo(ed 
y[x.Wood\ and it was v^th great Satisfaftion 
that I obferved fome Right Honourable Names 
very amicablyym^^ with my own at the Bottom 
oi^i Jirong Declaration againft him and his Coin. 
|lut if the AdmifTion of it ampng us be already 


I70 "The D rapier's Letters. 

determinedy the Worthy Perfon who is to Betray 
me ought in Prudence to do it with all convenient 
Speed, or elfe it may be difficult to find Three 
hundred Pounds in Sterling for the Difcbargc rf 
his Hire j when the Publick (hall have loft Five 
hundred thoufand, if there be fo much in the 
Nation, befides Four Fifths of its Annual Income 
for ever. 

I am told by Lawyers, that in Quarrels be^ 
tween Man and Man, it is of much Weight, 
which of them gave the firft Provocation or 
ftruck the firft Blow. It is manifeft that Mr. 
Wood hath done both, and therefore I fliould 
humbly propofe to have him firft Hanged, and 
his Drojs thrown into the Sea ; after which the 
Drapier will be ready to ftand his TryaL It 
mujl needs he that Offences come^ but Wo unto 
him by whom the Offence cometh. If Mr. Wood 
had held his Hand every body elfe would have 
held their ^ongues^ and then there would have 
been little Need of Pamphlets^ JurieSy or Pro^ 
clamations upon this Occafion. The Provoca- 
tion muft needs have been Great, which could 
ftir up an obfcure indolent Drapier to become an 
Author. One would almoft think the very 
Stones in the Street would rife up in fuch a 
Caufe: And I am not fure they will not doja 
asainft Mr. Wood if ever he comes within their 
Reach. It is a known Story of the Dumb Boy^ 


L E T T E R V. 171 

whofe Tongue forced a Paflage for Speech by 
the Horrour of feeing a Dagger at his Father's 
Throat. This may leflen the Wonder that a 
Tradefmian hid in Privacy and Silence fliould cry 
out when the Life and Being of his Political Mo- 
ther are attempted before his Face, and by fo 
infamous a Hand. 

But in the mean time, Mr. Wood the Deftroy^ 
er of a Kingdom walks about in Triumph (un- 
Icfi it be true, that he is in Jayl for Debt) whife 
he who endeavoured to ajfert the Liberty of his 
Country is forced to hide his Head for occafionally 
dealing in a Matter of Controverfy. However, 
I am not the firft who hath been condemned to 
Death for gaining a great ViSfory over a power- 
ful Enemy, by difobeying for once the ftrift Or- 
ders of Military Difcipline. 

I am now refolved to follow (after the ufiial 
Proceeding of Mankind, becaufe it is too late) 
the Advice given me by a certain Dean. He 
(hewed the Miftake I was in of trufting to the 
general good Will of the People, that I had fuc- 
ceeded hitherto, better than could be expeded, 
but that fome Unfortunate Circumftantial 
Lapfe would probably bring me within the reach 
of Power. That my good Intentions would be 
no Security againft thofe iJoho watched every Mxh 
tion of my Pen^ in the Bitternefs of my Soul. He 
produced an Inftance of a Writer as Innocent/ 


171 ^be Phapier's Letters. 

as difintercftcd, and as well meaning 9s my fclf, 
whetc the Printer^ who had the Author in his 
Power, was profecutcd with the utmoft Zeal, 
the Jury fent back Nine times ^ and the Man 
given up to the Mercy of the Court. The 
Dean farther obferved, that I was m a manna: 
left alone to ftand the Battle, while others who 
had ten Thoufand times better Talents than a 
jyrapier, were (b prudent to lie ftill, and per- 
haps thought it no nnpleafant Amufement to 
lode on with Safety, while another was giving 
them Diverfion at the Hazard of his Liberty and 
Fortune, and thought they made a fufficient 
Recompence by a Kttle Applaufe; whereupon 
he concluded with a fliort Story of a Jew at 
Madrid, who being condemned to the Fire on 
Account of his Religion, a Crowd of Schod- 
boys following him to the Stake, and apprc- 
tiending they might lofe their Sport, if he (houtd 
happep to recant, would often clap him on the 
Back, and cry, Stafrme Moyefe (Mbfes^ conti^ 

I allow this Gentleman's Advice to have 
been good, and his Obfervations juft, and in 
one Refped my Condition is worfe thaci that 
of the Jew, for no Recantation willfave me. 
However, it (hould feem hyfome late Proceedings^ 
that my State is not altogether deplorable. This 
I can impute to no^ng but the StoddineCs of 


LETTER V. 173 

tHvti impartial Grand-^Juries^ v^ich hath cori- 
firmed in me an Opinion I have long entertain* 
cdj Thar, as Philofophers (ay, Virtue is feated 
in the Middle ^ fo in another Senfe, the little 
Virtue left in the World is chiefly to be found 
among the middle Rank of Mankind, who are 
neither allured out of her Paths by Ambition^ 
nor driven by Poverty. 

Since the Proclamation (xcs^iontAby ray laft 
Letter, and a due Preparation for proceeding 
againft me in a Court of Juftice, there have 
been two printed Papers clandeftinely fpread a- 
bout, whereof no Man is able to trace the 
Original, further than by ConjeSure^ which 
with its ufiial Charity, lays them to my Ac- 
count. The former is entituled, Seajbnable Ad^ 
vice^ and appears to have been intended for In- 
formation of the Grand-Jury, upon the Suppo* 
fitionof a Bill to be prepared againft that Letter. 
The other is an Extract from a printed Book 
of Parliamentary Proceedings, in the Year 1680^ 
containing an angry Refolution of the Houfe 
of Commons in England^ againft dijfolving 
Grand-Juries. As to the Former, your Lord-r 
fliip will find it to be the Work of a more art* 
ful Hand, than that of a common Drapier. 
it hath been cenfured for endeavouring to in- 
fluence the Minds of a Jury, which ought to 
be wholly free and uabyafTed; and for thai; 
i Rcafoa 

J74 ^^^ DRAPiEk's Letters. 
Reafon, it is manifejly that, no Judge was eoer 
known cither upon or ^the Bench, cither by 
Himfelfy or his Dependents^ to ufe the leaft In- 
Jinuationy that might poffibly affcft the Paf- 
fions, or Interefts of any one fingle Jury-^many 
much left of a whole y«ry; whereof every 
Man mufli be convinced, who will juft give him- 
felf the Trouble to dip into the common print- 
ed Tryals j fo as, it is amazing to think, what 
a Number of Upright Judges there have been 
in both Kingdoms for above Sixty Tears pafi\ 
which, confidering how long they held their 
Offices during Pleafure^ as they Jiill do among 
usy I account next to a Miracle. 

As to the other Paper, I muft confefi it is 
a (harp Cenfure of an Englijh Houfe of Com- 
mons againft dijfoking Grand- Juries by any 
Judge before the End of the Term, Aflizes, or 
Seffions, while Matters are under their Confi- 
deration, and not prefented, as Arbitrary, Illegal, 
Deftruftive to publick Juftice, a manifeft Vio- 
lation of his Oath, and is a means to (ubvert 
the Fundamental Laws of the Kingdom. 

However, the Publiflier feems to have been 
miftakcii, in what he aimed at. For whate* 
ver Dependence there may be of Ireland upcm 
England^ I hope he would not infinuate, that the 
Proceedings of a Lord Cbiefjujiice in Ireland 
muft depend upon a Refolution of an Englijh 
3 Houfc 

L E t T E R V. 175- 

Houfc, of Commons, Bcfides, That Refolution 
Although it were levelled againft a particular 
Lord Chief Juftice, Sir William Scroggs^ 
yet the Occafion was direftly contrary. For 
Scroggs dijfohed the Grand Jury of London 
for Fear they (hould Prefent, but our s in Dublin^ 
was diflblved becaufe they would not Prefent, 
which wonderfully alters the Cafe. And there- 
fore a Second Grand Jury fupply'd that De- 
fed, by making a Prefentment that hath plea-- 
fed the whole Kingdom. However I think it is 
agreed by all Parties, that both the One and 
the Other Jury behaved themfelves in fuch a 
Manner, as ought to be remembred to their 
Honour, while there (hall be any Regard left 
among us for Virtim or Publick Spirit. 
, I am confident your Lordfliip will be of my 
Sentiments in one Thing, that fome fliort plain 
Authentick Trad might be publiftied for the 
Information both of Petty and Grand-Juries^ 
how far their Power reacheth, and where it is 
limited, and that a printed Copy of fuch a 
Treatife might be depofited in every Court, to 
be ccMifiilted by the Jury-men before they con- 
fider of their Verdid; by which abundance of 
Inconveniencies would be avoided, whereof 
innumerable Inftances might be produced jfrom 
formeif Times, becaufe I will fay nothing of the 

I have 

t^6 7]&^ Drapier^s Letters. 

I have read fomewhere of an Eaflern King 
who put a Judge to Death for an iniquitous 
Sentence, and ordered his Hide tb be ftuffed 
into a Cufhion^ and placed upon the Tribunal 
for the Son to fit on, who was preferred to his 
Father's Office. I fancy fuch a Memorial might 
not have been unufeful to a Son of 5/r William 
ScroggSy and that both he and his Succeflfors 
would often wriggle in their Seats as long as 
the Cujhion laftedj 1 wifh the Relator had tdd 
us what Number of fuch Cujhions there might 
be in that Country. 

. I cinnot but obfervc to your LordfJbip how 
Nice and Dangerous a Point it is grown for i, 
private Perfon to ihfbrm the People; even in aii 
Affair where the publick IntereO: and Safety 
arc (b highly concerned as that of Mi. Wood-, 
and this in a Country, where Loyalty is w(U 
wen into the very Hearts of the People^ feems 
a little Extraordinary. Sir William Scroggs was 
the firfl who introduced that commendable A^ 
cutenefs into the Courts of Judicature ^ hxit how 
fer this Pradice bath been imitated by his Suc- 
ceflbrs, oijirained upon Occafion^ is out of my 
Knowledge. When Pamphlets, unpleajing to 
the Minijlry^ were prefented as Libels, he would 
order the ofTenfive Paragraphs to be read before 
hioa, and faid it was ftrange that the Judges 
and Lawyers of the King s Bench (hould ba 


i E T T E R V. 177 

Duller than all the People of England: And he 
was often fo very happy in appl3ning the Jnitial 
Letters of Names, and expounding dubious Hints 
(the two common Expedients among Writers 
of that Ckfi for efcaping the Law) that he diP 
covered much more than ever the Authors in- 
tended, as many of them or their Printers found 
to their Coft. If fuch Methods arc; to be fol- 
lowed in examining what I have already writ- 
ten, or may write hereafter upon the Subjeft of 
Mr. fPoody I defy any Man of fifty Times my 
Underftanding and Caution to avoid being 
entrappedy unle6 he Will be content to write 
what none will read, by repeating over the 
old Arguments and Computations, whereof the 
World is already grown weary. So that my 
Good Friend Harding lies under this Dilemma^ 
cither to fet my Learned Works hang for ever 
adr3ang upon his Lines, or venture to publifli 
them at the Hazard of being laid by the Heels^ 
' I need not tell your Lordfliip where the Dit 
ficulty lies J it is trae, that the King and the 
Laws? permit us to refofe this Coin of Mr. fFood^ 
biit at the fame Time it is equally true, that 
the King ahd the Laws permit us to receive 
it. Now it is moft certain^ the Minifters in 
England do not fuppofe th6 Cotifequences of 
Uttering that Brafi among us to be fo ruinous 
« we apprehend} beeauft^ doubklefi if they 

N underftood 

J78 ^he EXiLAi?iER*s Letters. 
iindcrftood it in that Light, they arc Pcr&ns of 
too much Honour and Juftice not to ufe their 
Credit with liis Majefty for (aving a tmfi Unyal 
Kingdom from Defirudiion. But as Xoxvg as it 
(hall pleafe thofe great Pcrfons to think that 
Coin will not be 7& n)ery pernicious to us, wc 
lie under the Di(advantagc of being cenfiircd, 
as Objiinate in not complying with a Tloyal 
Patent. Therefore nothing remains, but to 
tnake Ufe of that Liberty which the King and 
the Laws have left us, by continuing to rcfiife 
thi$ Coin, and by frequent Remembrances to 
keep up that Spirit raifed againft it, which o- 
therwife may be apt to flag, and perhaps in 
Time to fink altogether. For, any publick 
Order againft .receiving or uttering Mr. WooJ^s 
Half-pence is not reajbnably to be cxpcdedin 
this Kingdom, without Direftrons from Eng^ 
lafidy which I thifik lao body prefumes, or is fo 
fapguine to hope. 

. But to confefs the Truth, my Lord, I begin 
to grow weary of my Office as a Writer, and 
could heartily wifh it were devolved upcm my 
Brethren^ the Makers of Songs and Ballads, 
who, perhaps, are the beft qualified at prcfent 
to gather up the Gleanings of this Comtroverfy. 
As to my felf, it hath been my Misfortune to 
begin and purfue it upon a wrong Foundation* 
For having 4etc£ted the Frauds and Falftoock 


t>f tins Vile Impoftbr fFood in eivefy Part, I 
fooKflify difdained to have Recourfe td Whining^ 
Lameniingi and Cry//^ ^r Mercy ^ but tatfeet 
chofe to tf/5^/?/ to Z/tftt; ahcj Libefiyi and /^^ 
common Rights of Mankind^ wkfiout confider- 
ing the ClitnaieX^R^ in. 

Since your laft l^cfidenfee in Ireland; I frc" 
C[uently have ciken toy Nag td ride about your 
Grounds, where I fancyM my felf to feel ztl 
Air of Freedom breathing round me, and I atn 
gfeid the low Condltidn of a Tradefmari di<l 
txK qualify me to wait an ydu at yotir Houfcy 
fot then I am afraid my Writings would not: 
ha^e efcapedy^i^r^r Cerifures. Bdt I hate ktely 
fold my Nag, and honeftly told His gteateft 
Fault, which was that of fnuffing (ip the k\i 
about Brhckdenjlown^ whereby he became fiich 
^ Lover of Liberty^ that I could fearce' hold 
him in. I have like wife buried! at the Bottbnri 
of a ftrong Cihcfl: your Lordftiip*s Writings un-J 
der a Heipofothers chat Treat dfLibeTiy^ and 
fprcad over i Layer ot two of Hobs , Filmer^ 
Boding^ ahd «iaiy mort AtithorS of that Stamp, 
to be rcadieft at Hand, whenever I fliaB bd 
<li(J)ofed to take tip a iSfew Set of Prindpks ini 
Governtrient. Ifx the mean time I defign qui^ 
ctly to look td my Shop, aiid keep as far out 
of your Lordftiip's Inftuerice aS poflSbkj and if 
yo^ ever fee any mote of my Writiiigs on th^ 
N i Subje^ 

i8o ^he Dhapier's LEtxtRS. 
Subjca, I promife you (hall find them as hv 
nocent, as infipid, ^d without a Sting, as what 
i have now offered you. But if your Lordfliip 
will pleafe to give me an eafy Leafe of iovpc 
Part of your Eftate in Torkjhire^ thither I will 
carry my Cheft, and turning it upfide down, 
icfiime my Political Reading where Heft it off; 
feed on plain homely Fare, and Live and Die 
a Fr^e Honeft Englijh Farmer: But not with- 
out Regret for leaving my Country-men under 
the Dread of the Brazen Talons of Mr. Wood-^ 
My Moft Loyal and Innocent Country-men, 
to whom I owe fo much for their good Opi- 
nion of Me, and my Poor endeavours to ferve 
them* I am, \vith the greatcft Refpeft, 

My Lordy 

From my Shop in Tour Lordjhifs 

St. Franch' Street, 

Moft Obedient, 
and moft Humble Servant y 


J>ee. 14, 1724. 



O N T H E 


M A D E T O 
Pafi Mr. Wood's Brafs Money in Ireland. 

N 3 Some 

Some Considerations on the At- 
tempts made to pafs Mr. Wood's 
Brafi Money m Ireland. 

(By a Lover ofbh Country.) 

T is a melancholy Confideration, 
to fee thefeveralRefolutionsand. 
Addrefes of both Houfes of Par- 
liament of liehnd^ during their 
late Sejfion, the late Addrefe of 
his Majefiies Juftices and Privy-Council of that 
Kingdom, and the Petition of the County of the 
C;V;?o/" Dublin J whereby the unanimous, Senfe 
of this Nation, and the great Apprehenjions 
they were under ^ from importing and uttering 
Copper Half-pence and Farthings in Iri^land , 
hy Virtue of the Patent granted to William 
Wood, have been reprefei^ted in the ftrongefl 
Terms; I 6y, it is a mela|icholy Confiderapon, 

N 4 . . ■ . ■ ■ ■ . to 

184 Considerations on theAttempU 

to fee the Force of all thefe Rcprcfentatioas, 
eluded by the Petitions of a finglq Perfon, fuch 
as Mr. Wood. : 

If Jufticc ftood on the Side of this fingle Per- 
fon, it ought to give good Men Pleafure to 
fee that Right ihould take Place ; but when, 
on the contrary, the Common- Weal of a whole 
Nation, the quieting the Minds of a People di- 
ftra6tcd with Apprehenfion of the utmoft Dan-, 
ger tp their Pj-operties, nay, the Prefervation 
of the Purity of their Laws , is overborn by 
private Intercft, what good Man but muft la- 
ment fuch an unhappy State of Affairs? 

And fince the Matter was of this Importance, 
and fecm'd to carry with it the Teftimony o^ 
Heaven, in the uniyerfal Cry of the People^ 
how could any particular Members of a Com- 
munity, which had thus with one Voice der* 
precated the Evil, with any Shew of Reafbn takq 
upon them, the Rifque of any Mifcarriage in 
aTryal, in a fubordinate Court? 

It wias to our gracious Sovereign, that al| 
th?fe' Addrefles and Petitions were prefented; 
It was into his fatherly Hands the whole Na- 
tion committed the Care of their Caufe ; and iq 
would have been the higheft Piece of Arro^- 
gance, for any Perfon to have prefumed to take 
upon themfelves, a (hare in that Truft, which 
vras onlyrcpofed in his Majefty's Hands* Ic 


to pafi Mr. Wo o d^s C o i n. 185' 

is no wonder therefore, ^bat every one was 
guarded with Caution^ againji giving any Advice 
or Opinion in this Matter of State -y for which 
Reafon they ought to apprehend great Danger 
to themfelves^ from meddling in it 

Tho' this Proceeding may feem extraordi-' 
nary-y yet it being on a moft extraordinary 
Matter, on a Matter of fuch Importance, as 
feemed to involve the civil Rights and Pro- 
perties of a whole Nation in the Ifluc of itj 
on a Matter wherein the Lords and Commons 
were Complainants, and the King immediately 
concerned, not only as general Father of his 
People, but alfo as particular and only Truftec; 
in whom' his People repofed entire Confidence 
to redrefi the Grievances complained of; was 
it not entirely reafonable and fit, that every 
particular Perfon of this Kingdom, fliould rejl 
upon what was done by the whole Body of 
the People duly aflembled in Parliament, and 
not arrpgantly aflume to themfelves, a Power 
of putting the Fate of this Nation to an IfTue 
before Twelve Men? 

Since then it plainly appears, that this Mat- 
ter is of fuch a. high Nature, that no particular 
Perfon ought to have intermeddled in it; it is to' 
be prefumed, that the Non-appearance of Per-' 
fons tofupport the, united Senfe of both Houfes of^ 
JParliament of Ireland, pan never be conftru- 
' ' ■ ' ' ^ cd 

1 85 Considerations on the jittempts 

cd as a general Diffidence, of being able tofup^ 
port the Charge brought again/l the Patent and 
Patentee^ tho* indeed it might proceed from a 
general and a very rcafonablc Apprehenfion of a 
Mi/carriage in this important Affair ; wherein 
both Houfes of Parliament had declared them-^ 
felves fo fully convinced^ and fatisfed upon Evi- 
dence^ and Examinations taken in the moflfolemn 
Manner j that for my part, I (and fo I hope every 
true Lover of his Country on his part) will look 
upon their Refolutions, to have the fame Dignity 
(in this Cafe) with a Maxim in Law, ^ia Maxi- 
ma eji earum dignitas^ & certiffima j4uthoritas^ 
atque quod Maxime omnibus probentur. 

And therefore I don't prefume to enter the 
Lifts, in ord^r to fupport the Refolutions of both 
Houfes of Parliament; for I look upon it, that 
xhtyzxtfofure and uncontrollabky that they ought 
not to be quejiioned-, but it fliall be the Bufineft of 
this Paper, to point out fomc of the Mifchiefs, 
which will naturally refult from this Coinage of 
Vii.JVooSs^ in cafe it ihould be forced upon 

We are told, -that the Power of iflfuing this 
Money of Mr./^oJ's, is limited, and mf bout 
any Compul/ton^ and Currency inforcedy to be re^ 
ceiv'dbyfuchonly^ as would voluntarily and will- 
fully accept the fame. But then it is melancho- 
ly to behold, that this Patent i3 explained to be 


t$ pafs M-. Wood's Coik. 187 
Obligatory on all bis Majs/ly's Officers and Mi^ 
mfierSy to receive the fame. 

By this Means there is a Foundation laid for - 
the moft unheard-of Confiifion that ever was in- 
troduced Into the Bufinefs of a Nation j for here is 
cftj4)liflicd a Species of Money, made of the ba-. 
(eft Metal, which none in Employments under 
his Majefty muft refufe in Payments to the Crown 
or to dicmfclvcs, and yet all the reft of his Sub-^ 
jeds are at Liberty to refiife the fame in Pay-^ 
mcnts to be made to them, either by his Majefty, 
or by any other Perfon. 

Thus the Revenueof the Crown will be Higb-> 
Jy Prejudiced^ by the Want of intrinfick Vduc 
in the Coin wich which it is paid; and the Army 
and all others in Employments under his Majefty, 
are the Perfons, who, in the firft Place, muft 
Jjcar the Burthen of this Mifchief. For if they 
are the only Perfons who are Obliged to receive 
this Can as current Money, it is to be prefum'd 
that no other Perfons will receive the feme but 
with Q3n(iderable Allowance for the Dif&rence 
between thcBra/s Money ^ and that made of Gold 
or Silver. 

And eyen with a confiderable Allowance^ it 
will be hard to concdve how this Brafs Money 
will find any Degree pf Currency in the World, 
without the AflTiftftnce of a Set pf Men, who . 
^ay probaUy wife great Eft^tcs in this unfettled 




188 Considerations m the jittempts 

Courfe of Af&irs 5 but fuch a Set of People 
ought never to be encouraged by a wife Go- 
vernment, for they will make their Fortunes by 
the Lofles of good Subje£b, and by preying on 
the Revenue erf" the Prince : And yet thofe Huck- 
fterers^ or Money-jobbers will be found neccflary 
if this Brafs Money is made current in the Ex-t 
chequer. ' 

To (hew in fome Meafiire the Proportion of 
this Mifchicf to his Majefty's Revenue, and to 
thofe in immediate Offices under him : It muft 
be confidered, that the groft Revenue of this 
Kingdom is about 500,000 i per Annum i out 
of which muft be deduded the Charge of Col- 
ledion and Draw-backs ; which to be fure, the 
fevetal G)lleftors, and thofe who are to receive 
the Draw-backs, will take Care to receive m 
Sterling Money, about 80,000/. per Annum \ 
and there will remain for the Difchajge of the 
Civil and Military Lifts, Penfions, &c. 410,000/. 
per Annum^ which Sum, it is probable, iflues 
out of the Treafury by monthly Payments of a- 
bout 35,000 /. per Month j for otherwife the cur- 
rent Cafli in this Nation could not poffibly pay 
the Revenue, and ferve to carry on, even the 
little Bufineft of this Country, for it has never 
been computed that our current Coin amounts to 
more than 500,000/. So that if 40,000/. of 
Mr. Wood's Brajs Money is thrown in uppn us 


iopafi Afr. Wbo D*i Coin. 189 

fcvte adtnitjring that no more of this Species 
Ihoddbc brou^t in) it is manifeft that that Sum 
wili be near one Twelfth of the whole Coin in 
At I^fatibn ; and more than one Month's Pay of 
Ac Civil and Military Life, and Pehfions, &c. 
of this Kii^dom. , . . 

If this Sum fliould Magnate in the Tirdafiiryi 
It is certain there will be no gfcatcr Lofs (ininie- 
diatdy brought) by this Coin to the Revenue, 
than the Money that there lies dead amounts 
to : But if it is ifTued in monthly Pa3rmchts to the 
Army, and other his Majeft/s Officers and Mi- 
niftcts, as in all probability it ihuft ; then this 
Coin, being compofed of a bafe Metal, current 
only in the Excfiequer, where it is received at aii 
imaginary Value, of at lead 60 p& Cent mor6 
than the real Value of the Material, it will be 
fuddenly paid back again to the Colledors, and 
by that means pafi thro* the Treafiiry, at lead 
three times in every Year ; for there,' we are told, 
it is to meet with no Let or Molejiatton. 

And feeing the Cuifrency of this Money is not 
inferced on any other of his Majefty's Subjefb: 
it is eafy to conceive, that the difference of Value 
between this Coin, and the Gold and Silve^ 
"which will be current in the Nation, Willbc fet- 
tled by the Money-jobierSy at about %operCent^ 


15KJ C6i*siDERAtiOMS Oft iht Atenipii' 

By whidi meaiis alone, there vill be loft \A 
the intrinfick Value of the Revenue the Sum df 
24000/. per Ann. without computing for thcf 
Lodes which muft necefllarily be brought to the^ 
Revenue, by the general diffidence, which the 
introducing this Coin will create among the 
People; aU which wiU be Inanifeflly d^ruBive 
of the Urade and CMimerce if the Kingitm^ and 
of dangerous ConfequeHee to the Properties ofthi 

And yet the Evil \m been here compated onr 
a Suppofition that only 40,000/. <^tlwMon^ 
will be utter'd in the Kingdom ; but I take it ta 
be impofliUe to limit die quantity that (hali bef 
brought in^ efpedally if the ftnportecs of i^ 
have fo (ure a Market for the (ame a^ the Esscbe^ 

For tho' his Majefty flioald be able to prcV6n£ 
Mr. ff^ood from Coining any more than 40,000 ^ 
and (hould never hereafter be prevailed upon ta 
grant bis fpecial Licence or Aaborityy to enlarge 
that Sum, yet it will be ioipofliUe to prevent 
the Importation of this fort of Coin fioni other 
Rations. And there have been fuch Variety of 
Dyes made ufe of by Mr. Wood in StMopingim 
Money, that it makes the Difcovcry of Goihatcr-^ 
leits more difficult, and the Profit is fy great that 
it vsrill be a fufficicnt Temptation to our kidiiftri^ 
ous Neighbours of Holland to fend large Quan-^ 


iapafs Mr. "Wo OD% Coin. 191 

dties of this Coin to fo fure a Market as the Ex-' 

And perhaps it may be a Queftion among 
Lawyers, whether a Man can be puniflied at the 
King's Suit, for counterfeiting this Coin, becaufe 
it is not the current Coin of the Kingdom; for 
tho' thefe Half-pence are to be received as Mo- 
ney in the Exchequer, yet in Trade they are no 
better than Counters, and therefore the Patent 
may perhaps be conftrued to be no more than a 
Grant of a Monopoly to make thofe Counters. 

But it is worth obferving, that if this Patent 
is fo worded, as that his Majeflys Officers, em- 
ployed in the Receipt of his Revenue, can't rc- 
fiife receiving this Coin, it is direftly contrary to 
Two k&s of Parliament now in force in this 
Kingdom, and which are to be found in the 
Books of Rates diftributed among the Officers of 
the Revenue. 

For by the Ad of Tonnage and Poundage, 
14 and 15 Car. II. cap. 9. the Duties there- 
by granted to his Majefty and his Succeflbrs, arc 
to be paid in lawful Money oi England. And 
by the Aft of Excife, or New-Impoft, 14 and 
15". Car. II. cap. 8. it is exprefly declared 
Mid enafted, ^hat the federal Rates and Duties 
cfExcife^ and all FineSy Penalties ^ Forfeitures^ 
or other Sum, or Sums of Money rated, impofed. 
Jit, or forfeited^ in and by this AB, are meant 


19* Considerations on the Attempts 
and intended to be Current and Lawful Money ot 
Monies ^England, and that all and every of the 
fame^ be therefore demanded^ received^ paid and 
fatisfied accorSngly. 

By thefe Ads it is manifeft, that the Colkaow 
arc obliged to receive the feveral Duties arifing 
from the Cuftotn and Excife, in no other Money 
but fuch as is current and lawfitl Money of E»^- 
land^, and Mr. Wood's Half-pence and Farthings 
not being current or lawful Money in England^ 
or in this Kingdom, if this Patent is obligatory 
on them to receive Payments in this Coin, it is 
contrary to k&s of Parliament, and therefore 
void in it felf. 

And if the feveral Colledors of his Majcfty's 
Revenue in this Kingdom, fhould receive thefaid 
Duties, or any part of them, in Mt. Wood's Brajs 
Mmeyy it would be afluming to themfelves a 
Power to difpenfe with thofe Afts of Parliament, 
contrary to the Senfe of both HoufeS of Parlia- 
ment, and contrary to their refpeftive Oaths; fo 
that it feems highly reafonable, becaufe confo- 
nant to Law, that the Oncers of the Revenue 
Jhouldgive Orders to the inferior OfficerSy not to 
receive this Coin, 

, Perhaps it will be (aid, that the King hath a 
Power to dired what Coin he pleafes to be re- 
ceived by the Officers of his Revenue, and that 
this Patent is in confequencc of fuch a Preroga- 

topdfs Afr. Wood's GoiNj 19^ 

tive. But it is to bfc hoped, that this Doftrind 
will never be maintained, in fevour of a Coin, 
to which the whole Nation, as ^ell in Parlia-* 
taeht aflembled^ as in their private Capacities, 
have fhewed a general Diflikd 

Moreover, as this Cafe ftands circumftanced, 
it is a great Queftiort, whether his Majefty hath 
filch a difpenfing Power: For tho' it (hould be 
allowed, that his Majefty might dired the Re-« 
ceipt of his ovm Revenue iii what Coin he plea* 
ies ; yet it is moft certain, that his Nfajefty does 
not intend to inforcc the Curf ency of Wood^s Mo-« 
feey among atly of his Subjeds, much le& doth 
his Majefty intend to oblige thofe, who arc inti- 
dcd by A£t of Parliament^ to be paid in currenc 
Money of England^ to receive this Money oi 

And it is plain, thit by ike A6t of Cxcife,' 
there are feveral FineSy Penalties and Forfeitures^ 
which by Vif tOe of that Ad, arc to be recdved 
in curi-cnt Money of Mngland^ and to half thofe 
Finesy Fwfeiturei and Penalties^ the Informers! 
are irititled by Virtue of the faid Aft i So that if 
the Officers (hould be obliged to receive them in 
Brafs Money ^ the Informers muft neceffarily lofd 
the Benefit of the faid KSk 3 And I may Vcnturd 
to fay^ that that Ad cannot be repealed but by 
another Aft, to be made by King, Lords and 
Commons, and not by a Patent 

O All 

194 CoKsiDERATiONs Oft tbc AttempU 

All thcfc Things having been, among many 

other very weighty Matters, laid before hocb 

Houfes of Parliament oi Ireland ; it is not to he 

wpndred, that they refrejent^ that the Patent 

had been obtained in a chmdefiine and ta^ece-^ 

dented Manner ^ and by notorious Mi/repre/knta-^ 

tionsofthe State of Ireland. For what can be 

more Clandcftine, than to obtain a Patent with 

Powers, not only highfy prejudicial to bis Ma^ 

jeftfs Revenue^ dejiru&ive of the Trade and 

Commerce of the Kingdom^ and (f dar^erous 

Confequence to the Prt^perties of the SubjeS, but 

alfo contrary to feveral kSts of Parfiamcnt ? And 

diat it was an unprecedented Attempt, at lead 

in this Reign, wiB be readily aJbwcd j therefore 

aU the Reprefentations made of the State of In^ 

landy in order to obtain this Patent, may with 

great Truth be called Notorious Mtfrefre* 


But it has been faid, that his Majefly cannot 
proceed againft the Patentee, but accordisig to 
the known Rules and Maxims of Law and 
Juftice: And God forbid that any one of this 
Kingdom, ftiould advife his Majefty to Subvert 
or Difpenfe with any of our Laws. No Part 
of the Addreffes from the Houfes of Parlia^ 
ment of Ireland^ has the leaft Tendency thtf 


Hpajl Mr. Wood's Coin. ipV 

For the' thdHoufe of Commons, in their fe- 
cond Addreis to his Majcfty, inofi humbly befeech 
his Majejiy^ that he will be gracioujly pleafed to 
give Dire6iions to the federal Officers^ intrujied 
-with the Receipt of his Majejifs Rievenue^ that 
they do not on any pretence ivhatjoever, utter 
fueb Half 'pence and Farthings : Yet, if his Ma- 
jefty had been gracioufly pleafed to have given 
Orders, according to this humble Address of his 
People of Ireland 'i it is humbly conceived, that 
this would have been only an Affirm.ance of the 
Law of the Land, as hath been faid, and not 
any way contrary to Law. 

For cho* his Nlajefty by bis Patent under the 
Great Seal of Great Britain, Wills^ Require^^ 
and Commands his Lieutenant^ peputy^ or other 
Chief Governor or Governors of his Kingdom of 
Ireland, a?id all other Officers and Minijlers of 
his Majejiy^ his Heirs and Succejfcrs in Enghn?^ 
Ireland or elfewhere^ to be Aiding and AJJijiing 
to the faid William Wood his Executori^ &c. in 
the Execution of all or any the Powers^ Autho- 
ritiesy DireSlions^ Matters or ^things to be exC' 
cuted by him or them^ or for his or their Benefit 
or Advantage^ by Virtue^ and in Purfuance of 
the faid Indentures-^ Yet it is in all things as 
becomethy ^c. And this is to be expounded by 
the known Laws of the Land, and by othct 
Parts of the faid Patent, whereby it is manifeffi 
O % that 

ig6 Considerations on the Attempts &c. 

that his Majcfty never intended to inforce the 
Currency of this Money , to be received by any 
Per/on^ that would not Voluntarily and Wilfully 
accept the fame. 

Therefore fmce the People have (hewed a ge- 
neral Diflike of this Coin, it is to be hoped, that 
fome Method will be found out to eafe their 
Minds, from the Diftradion they arc under oa 
this Oecafion. 




Shewing the Neceflity the People of 
Ireland are under for con- 
tinuing to tcdiCe Mr. W o o d's 

By the Author of the Confidcrations. 

I/Ihuc eft Sapere^ non quod ante pedes modo ejl 

Videre^ fed etiam Way qua future funty 

Profpicere. Teren, 

Nulla funt occultiores infidiay quam qua latent in fimu- 
latione Officii^ aut in aliquo neceffitudinis nomine^ nam 
eum qui palam ejl adverfarius^ facile cavend^ vitare 
pojjis : hoc vero accultum intefiinum ac domefiicum malum j 
non modo exijlitj verum etiam opprimity antequam pro- 
Jpicere atque explorare potueris. 


To the Right Honourable Allan, 
Lord Vifcount M[Ddleton, 
Lord High- Chancellor of IRE- 


T has been conftantly obferved of your 
Lordjhip^ that you have found out the 
Secret, of making the Patriot and 
Minister agree in the fame Ferfon\ for^ as 
you have ever been Remarkable for your Ad- 
herence to the Intereji of the Crown, fo you 
have always confulted the Good of the Com- 
mon Wealth. It is for this Reafon, that I 
prefume to put the following Sheets under your 
ProteStion ; that my Readers^ by feeing your 
Lordjhifs Name at the Head of them, may be^ • 
at thefirfi View, ajfured, they are writ with a 
jujl Regard to the Prerogative of the King, and 
the Inter ef of this Country. lam with the mofi 
profound Refpedl, 

My Lord, 

Your Lordfliip's moft 
Humble and moft 
Obedient Servant, 

O4 D-B, 

$ome Reasons Jhew'mg the Necef- 
ftty the People of Ireland are under 
for continuing to r^fufe Mr^ Wood's 

HEN diJtinSi Property was fettled 
by the Law of Man, and Traf» 
fick became the Bufinefe of the 
whole World ; it was abfolutely 
ncceflary, that fome common 
Meafiire fliould be eftablifli'd for the more ready 
fetting a Value on the Pofleflions of Men, ^nd the 
Goods or Commodities they traded in. 

And a$ it was neceflary, that this Common 
Meafure (hould always preferve an Intrinjici^ 
Value^ it feems the Reafon, that univer(al Con- 
(ent fixed on Qold and Siher^ as the propereft 
Materials to conftitute fuch ^ Common Mea^, 
Jure. For they being of all other Metals the 
purcft, and moft durable, and therefore the mod 
proper for Preiervation^ are, at the fam0 Time, 


Reasons for^ Sec. aoi 

tlic rarcft and the moft difficult to be come at^ 
which muft always continue an Intrinfick Value 
in theni. 

But however this Value came firft to be given 
Gold and Silver^ we find, they were made the 
Standard ot Common Meafure of Value^ of all o- 
ther Commodities ; and thofe two Metals were 
divided into (mall Parcels, for the readier Car- 
riage from place to place ; and in order to certify 
the Finenefs and Weight of thofe Pieces, there 
were Stamps put on them by publick Authority: 
And thofe Pieces, thus ftamp'd, werecairdM?i5?ey, 
which received particular Names^ and Denomi- 
nations, in the <iifFerent Countries, where they 
were thus (lamped or coined. 

Yet, taking it as the Meafure of Tirade in Ge^ 
neraly Money does not acquire any Intrinfick 
Falue fvomthc Stamp. For be the Material, Gold 
or Sihety it has no other real Value^ than in 
Proportion to its Weight and Finene(s ; and A&- 
ney^ may be faid to be bought by, and (old for 
other Commodities, as well as other Commo- 
dities are (aid to be bought by, and fold for 

The fame may be faid of the different Specicg 
of Money y when compared together : For, as 
Gold and Silver do reciprocally meafure otic ano- 
ther, fo the raifing the Denomination of the 
Cpjn jnadc of cither of thefe Metals, may in- 

xo% Reasons yir 

deed, give it a greater Imaginary EJlimatim in 
the Country where it is thus enhaunced, but it 
can by no Means cncrcafe its real Value in the 
trading l^Vorld. 

This is plainly proved by daily Experience; 
and it is certain, that if Mmey made of Gold^ 
be in one Country of greater proportional Value 
to the Money made oi Silver ^ than it is in other 
Countries ; a greater Quantity of Gold will be 
poured into the current Cajh of the Nation, but 
inftead thereof, the Silver Coin will be drained 
away ; and the fame may be (aid of Silver Mo- 
ney^ when it exceeds the Price of Gold. 

That in Faft it is thus, I may refer my Rea- 
der to aConfiderationoftheprefent State of the 
X^aihof Ireland^ and he will find, that ever fincc 
the Redu6lion of Guineas in Great Britain^ 
from twenty one Shillings and fix Pence, to ii 
Shillings, we have been gradually lofing our 
Siher Coin, until at length we are almoft de- 
prived of our Silver Species; and this proceeds 
from the dijproportioned Value of the Siher and 
Gold Coins oi Ireland^ compared with thofe of 
Great Britain. 

• For ICO /. of Silver Money in England^ is e- 
qual to io8 1. 6 s. 8 d. in Ireland^ and loo/. of 
Gold in England produces 109 /. 10 j. 6d. \sl 
Ireland^ fo that the dijproportioned Value of the 
^oldOxm in Ireland^ to the Silver Coin^ is i/. 

^^fnfi^g Afr. Wood's Coin. 103 
3^. 10 d. on an 100/. Englifh^ whichisaDit 
fcrence great enough to have the Eflfefts we fee 
on the Current Cafli of the Nation ; and this 
Confideration alone, will make it plain to every 
Capacity, how neceflfary it is that there (hould 
always be an Equality of Value, prefervcd be- 
tween die different forts of Coin that conftitutc 
the Current Cafli of every Nation* 

That this Difproportion between the Value 
of GoJd ^nd Silver is obftruflive of Trade, h 
evident from Experience ; and I believe it will 
readily be allowed, that the Confequences would 
prove yet more Fatal, if the Difproportion be 
created between the Coins of thofe Metals, and 
^eksm made of Ccpper^ or any other Metal of 
inferiour Value : And this Mifchief will be increa^ 
^ in Proportion to the Difference, between the 
Imaginary and real Value of the Coins, con>- 
par'd with thofe of other Countries. 

For, let us give what Name we will to our 
Coin, and let us raife it to ever fo high an imagi- 
pary Eftimation, itismoft certain, the real Value 
of it, is not, by that Means encreafed ^ but that 
it will always be confidered by other Nations, 
pnly according to the Finenefi and Quantity cf 
the Metal it is compofed of: So that a Nation 
xhsx is unhappily led into fuch Miftakes, is great- 
ly deceived, and Foreigners have thereby an un- 
avoidable Opportunity given them, of drawing 


204 Reasons y&r 

away its Riches, by dicir fupenor Skill in Mat- 
ters of this Nature. 

It has already been (aid, that Gold mdSiher 
arc the Metals, of which Money is made, to fcrvc 
as ageneral Meafure of Trade i and they are the 
only Metals that have that univerfal Efteem for 
on them. Yet it was found neceflary in all 
Countries, to have Coins made of bafer Metals, 
in order to ferve for ftnall Payments : But thofe 
Coins never obtained the Credit of being 
cfteemed among the cmmon Meafures of 

It is true, that in feme Countries, the Cur- 
rency of their Copper Money^ is enforced in a 
certain Proportion of Payments, but in Etig-^ 
Jand^^d Ireland^ Tokens made of Copper ^ were 
never accounted lawful Money, yet for Coi> 
vcniency, they are allowed to have a Cur- 
It fecms therefore neceflary, (fince fo bafe a 
Coin, may, by any Means obtain a Currency) 
That the Coinage of Copper Money ^ fliould be 
performed by publick Authority, and with the 
feme Cautions of the Silver and Gold Coinage; 
And it is a Matter moft proper to be taken into 
the Care of Sovereigns, whofelntereftitis, never 
for any private Advantage, to ovcrftock their 
Countries with this fort of Coin, which is made 


refujmg Mr. Wo o d's C o i w. lOf 

of a Metal not univerfally accepted, as theMea- 
fore of Trade. 

Upon the whole Matter, the Care of the 
Coin of every Nation, is abfolutely neceflary, in 
order to avoid being over-reach'd by other Couiu 
cries, in the Courfe of Trade, and alio to fet a 
juft Value on diJiinSt Properties. 

It ought not therefore to be admired, that we 
are under great ApprebenfionSy from the Im^ 
porting and Tittering Copper Halfpence and 
Farthings in Ireland, hy Virtue of the Patent^ 
granted to Mr. Wood, For if it takes Effefli 
the Copper Money of Ireland^ will bear too 
great a Proportion to the lawful Money of the 
Kingdom ; and (tho' the Terms of the Patent 
fliou'd be ftridly complied with) would have an 
imaginary Eftimation, (b much above the real 
Value of the Metal ; that it would of Neceflity^ 
prtfoe highly Prejudicial to his Majejly's Re-- 
venue^ DeJiru6H*ue of the Trade and Commerce 
of the Kingdom^ and of dangerous Confequence to 
the Properties of the SubjeSl 5 which I hope to 
prove undeniably, by what I (hall fay on this 

To (hew, ^at the Copper Money made iy 
Virtue of this Patent^ hath not a juji Proporti^ 
on of Intrinfck Value: It is only neceflary to 
ob(crve, that by the Patent, every Pound of 
Copper is allow'd to be coin'd into 30 Pence; 
I and 

lo6 Reasons y^r 

and this is the imaginary VahUy that is l£ec on 
this Quantity of Copper when madeimo Half- 
pence and Farthings. Now the reid Value of 
the Metal, (fuppofing it to be of die fincncS, 
fequir'd by the Patent) is at mod only twelve 
Pence, aiid this is the Litrinjick Value c£ thirty 
Pence in Talc, of this Coin, So that the 
Dil^nce between the realzad imaginary Value 
di^^Cof^ Money ]Sy asx tof, or6o£ to&in 

But perhaps it will be objected, that Copper 
Moneyy is in all Countries of Ids Wcirch, than 
die Denomitiation that is given to it; and that 
therefore it is un&ir to make an e^csift Scrutiny 
imo the DifFerence between the imaginary Value 
fet on fuch Species of Money, and the real 
^tf/Svr of the Material. The firft we allow, but 
at the fame time affirm, that there is no trading 
Nation in the Worlds that would not be confi'^ 
derably affe^ed in its Trade, if there fliould be a 
grea»:er Quantity of Cof>per Mmey^ of Icfi indrin* 
fick Value than the Species of Gold and Silver^ 
thrown into the current Cafii of the Nation, than 
what is abfolutely Neceflary for fmall I^yments. 
And if the power of uttering foch bafe Coin be 
unconfined, it may in the End, utterly Ruin the 
Trade of the mod flourifliing Countrey in the 


refufing Afr. Wood's Coin. 207 

For this Rcafon, in all Countries, the Copper 
Coinage is under, or (hould be under, the im* 
mediate Direction of the State, for when that 
Care is taken, it cannot be fuppos'd, that any 
greater Quantity of fiich bafe Coin, will be 
poured into the current Cafli (which is the great 
Evil to be apprehended) than what is abfolutely 
Neeeflary, for managing the Bufinefe of the 
Nation ; and this, the Exi^ncy of the People, 
gives a Demand for, and a natural Currency to: 
So that when there is only fuch a Quantity of 
Half-pence and Farthings Current, as are accept* 
cd in Payments, for the convcnicncy of Trade; 
People receive them without making a nice Ei>- 
quiry into dicir intrinfick Value; efpccially when 
every one hath a ftrfficient Security, that he (hall 
not bfe by them; becaulc> that as the Prince 
takes the Benefit of the Coinage to himfelf; jR^ 
it is. but reafonal^ to exped, he mud accept the 
(ame Coin in Payments, to be made into the 

Whereas, in the Cafe of this Patent, the Mat- 
ter is otherwife : For as the Power of the Coin-* 
age is granted to a private Perfon, we muft ap* 
prehend hell have only his own Intereft in Vie w^ 
and that he will always purfue it, though at tho 
Expence of the Publick. He vriU therefore fup- 
jdy^ not only what the Exigencies of the People 
may tequire, but alfo force into the Trade of the 


Countrey,, as iiiuch of bis Coin, as he cam put 
out of his Hands, with iirry Advantage to him-* 
felf. And in order to do this, he will bd able tor 
allow large Premiums to thofe who will under^* 
take to difperie his Tokens amongft the Peopl^ 
which he can afford to do by their wanting (as 
hath been already (hewn) of Intrinjkk Value^ 
By which Means, th6 Countrey wiU be ovcr-» 
ftock'd with this bafe Coin^ and then, tho* too 
too late, its real Value will be found oat, fince that 
is the only Method thofe Perfons will have of 
being re-imburfed, who may be unfortunately 
(educed to part with their Gold and Silver, of 
valuable Commodities for it. For, indeed, it 
would be highly unreafonaUe, that the publick 
Re\^enues (hould (land as a Security, for making 
good a Species of Money, coined by^ private 
Perfons ; which ought not to be expefted, but 
when the State receives the Benefit of the Coi- 

And conformable to this good Policy, out 
Kings never granted any Power and Privilege of 
Coining Copper Half-pence and Farthings to 
private Perfons, without taking fufficient Securi^ 
ty, to prevent the great Mifchief of having more 
of fuchbafe Coin introduced, than was neCeflary 
for carrying on the Bufinefs of the Nation. Thus 
in the Parents granted by King Charles 11. and 
King James II. there is a Claufe whereby it is 


I'tfnfi^g Mr. Wood's Coin. 209 
provided, T^bat the Patentees Jhould deliver unr 
to any of the SubjeSls of Ireland, that jhdll find 
thentfelves futcharged in Hhe ordinary Courfe of 
their Urade^ mth more of the faidXjopper Half 
pence y than they can conveniently utter for their' 
Ufe or OccafionSy the Sum of Hwenty Shillings 
Sterl. in Current Money, for eveYy Sum of 
twenty Shillings in the f aid Copper Halfpence^ 
and fo after that Rate for all greater or lejfer 
Sums), &CC. In eonfequcnce of which Claufq 
the Patentees cftablifhed Perfons in fevcral Ct 
ties of the Kingdom, to exchange their Copper 
Halfpence for Current Money*. 

This Claufe was a moft excellent Security a- 
gainft this great Mifchief, which is (b juftly ap- 
prehended froth Mr. Wood's Patent; For the 
Patentees Wert tied down by their own Intere^y 
hot to pour in more of this Copper Money^ 
than was necefl&ry for carrjrin^ on the Trade off 
the Kingdom, left if their Coin came into Dit 
credit, (as undoubtedly it muft, if the People 
found themfelves Surcharged with it, in the or- 
dinary Courfe of their Trade) it (hould be all 
pour'd back again, and by that Means over- 
whelm their Projed. 

* I am credibly iriform'd, that, in eonfequcnce of this 
Claufe, Sureties were entcr'd by Rccogniiancc in the Ex-, 
thequer of Ireland. 


aio Reason s^;* 

But in Mr. Wood's Patent, there is no fuck 
Claufe, and therefore he will have no other Care 
about the Copper Money, than to pa(s it out c^ 
his Hands ; and in order to do this, he will 
make ufe of what Means he can to force it into 
the Trade of the Nation, which is Manifeft 
from part of Mr. Finlafs Evidence, before the 
Lords of his Majefty's moft Honourable Privy 
Council in Great Britain^ whereby that Gen* 
tleman declares he had contracted with Mr. 
Woodiox sofiooL of his Money at 30 per Cent 

Which Contrad fliews, Mr. Wood was re- 
(blv'd to difpofe of more of his Copper, than 
there was a lutural Demand for. For to difpofe 
of what was only neceflary for the ufe of the 
Kingdom, the very Exigency of the People 
would naturally take it off his Hands, without 
any Premum. But his allowing ^oper CeHtI>\£^ 
count (or really any Difcount at all) in the Be- 
ginning of his Coinage, (hews he propofed to 
force more than was Neceflary ; and it is ea(y 
CO conceive he would increafe the Premiuiny in 
Proportion as the Market would be glutted, and 
the difficulty of difperfing his Coin, would be 
augmented; and thus the People would be 
brought into that great Evil of being Surcharged^ 
with this bafe Money, without any Poffibility of 
bein^ eyer relieved. 


refuftng Afr. Wood's Coin. 2H 

But, perhaps, fome People may imagine, that 
it is not abfolutcly ncceflaty, Money fliould be 
made of Gold or Silvery but would perform the 
fame Ufes, if made of Brafs^ Copper, T/», or 
any thing eHe, that had an imaginary Value at- 
Ugn'd it by the Will of the Prince. Such No- 
tions as thefc might pafi well enough, with Re- 
gard to a Countrey to which the reft of the 
World is unknown, cm: ^ leaft where no Com- 
merce with Foreigners is allowed. There in- 
deed, it would be no Matter whether the M>- 
Hey, or what pafles Current in it as Money, were 
Brajs, or Leather, or Skelh^ or any fuch trifling 
Matter, provided the fame may procure the 
People all the Necedaries their own Country 
affords; and that Foreign Convcniencies and 
Commodities are entirely unknown to them. 
But to imagine, that it were indifferent to ufe 
Copper or Brafs, inftead of Gold and Silver, in 
a Country that has TCraffick with other Nations, 
is a moft extravagant Fancy; for Foreigners can 
only efteem the Money of any Nation, accord- 
ing to its determined Intrinfick Value, and not 
With Refped to any Nominal Value, one par- 
ticular Nation gives it. 

Therefore the Mifchiefs of Mr. Wood\ Coi- 
nage, muft be confidcr'd, as they arife from the 
Want of Intrinfick Value in the Coin, (which 
Intrinjick Value alone can give Money an uni- 

P X verlal 

aii KtAsais for 

vcr&l Currency;) and from the Difordc« 
which ncccflarily attend the having too great a 
Quintity of fuch Ba/e Money^ in the current 
C^ of the Nation; and thefe are to be com- 
puted, according to the Sluality and ^antity 
of this Coin attempted to be utter'd among 

If Mr. Wood (hou'd be contented to Coin 
360 Tons oi Copper^ which he is allowed to do 
by the Patent, yet, as this Quantity alone 
would amount to 100,80c/. and that the J/r- 
trinfick Value of the Metal is but 40,3x0/. 
it appears, that there is by this Means alone 
a real Lofs to the Nation of 60,480/. tbo^ the 
^erms of this Patent had beenflriSlly comply' d 
with: For, as has been (aid before, the Patent 
allows 30^. to be coin'd out of every Pound of 
Copper^ and the Intrinfiek Value of the Copper 
is but izd. per Pound; wherefore there will 
always be a Dcfed of three Fifths in whatever 
Sum is coined upon thefe Terms. 

And, that the Lofs would /be much greater ^ in 
the Manner the f aid Half'peru:e have been coitid^ 
moft manifeftly appeared from the Affays made, 
and laid before the Houfcs of Parliament in Ire^ 
lands whereby it was prov'd, that fome of thofe 
Half-pence^ that were imported, with an in- 
tent to be uttered in this Kingdom, run 7% 
to the Pound} at which Rate the 360 Ton 


refujing Mr. Wood's Coin. 213 

would amount to 110,960/. and the immedi- 
ate Lofs to the Nation would be 80,460/. 

It muft be confcfe'd, that cither of thofe 
Sums, is a Lofs greater than this poor Country 
is able to bear^ or any the moft flourifhing 
Country would willingly bear, to gratify the 
Avarice of any undeferving Perfon whatfoever: 
Yet this is a Trifle, if compared with the MiC- 
chiefs that would enfue : For if the Lofs of ei- 
ther of thefe Sums, was the only Evil, it would 
then be detcrmin'd, and might perhaps be re- 
paired, by (ubfequent good Management : But 
in cafe this Copper had, thro' the Avarice of 
fome, and the Indolence of others, obtained a 
Currency among us, the Mifchiefs of it would 
daily encreafe, until at laft the whole Affairs of 
the Nation wou'd be reduced to a deplorable 

This will eafily be conceived, if it be remem- 
bered, that the Difference of i/. 3^. lod. be- 
tween lool Value of Gold Coin^ and 100/. 
Value of Silver Coin of this Kingdom com- 
pared with that of England, has had that EfFeft, 
that the grcateft Part of our Silver Money is, 
by that Means already taken out of the Coun- 
try; and in a litde Time (it is apparent) the 
whole Silver Species muft be drained away, if a 
timely Remedy is not apply'd to it r VS^ith much 
more Reafon therefore, we ought to apprehend 
P 3 the 

114 Reasons for^ 

the fatal Confequcnces of this Patent, whereby 
there is a Difference of 60 per Cent, created, 
between the Imaginary Value of this Copper^ 
and the lawful Mmey of the Kingdonx For, 
tho' in the Cafe of our Silver Coin^ we lofe it 
to our Difadvantage, yet the G^/^ that is brought 
inftcad thereof, amounts to near its real Value: 
But Mr. Wood being able to allow large Pre^ 
miumSy for difperfing his Money ^ if it had ob-i 
tain'd any Credit among us, and the Exchequer 
bad been permitted to fupport that Credit, we 
had rcafon to apprehend, he would by Degrees 
force in fuch Quantities of his Coin, as would 
draw away our Gold and Silver^ and leave ia* 
ftead of them his bq/e Money. 

But, fuppofe Mr. Wood to be fo ftridly honeft, 
as to keep within the Terms of the Patent 
(which we have undeniable Reafbns to^ believe 
he is not) and that barely 100,000/. (hou'd 
be forced into the Kingdom, according to the 
Terms of the Patent: Ifliall confider the great 
Mifchief, which even fuch a Quantity would 
bring to the Nation ; tho * I think it moft pdain^ 
that, by Counterfeits and other ways, much 
greater Sunw wou'd be introduced, before we 
could be (enfiblc of tKera. And to do this, I 
muft re^mind my Readers, that fuch a Sum 
of 10O3OO0/. of this Coin, would be, in realVa-^ 
b^y equal to, only ^opqqL oi lawful Money. 


refufing iWr. Wood's Coin. ixjt 

In order to ftate this Matter rightly, I (hall 
make ufe of fome Schemes^ that may be accept- 
ed, as exad enough to form any Reafonings 
upon; and which determine the Number of 
Inhabitants in Ireland^ their Annual Expence, 
and the Means of their Subfiftencc. 

The Inhabitants of Ireland^ are computed at 
^nvo Millions of Souls, and their Expence one 
with another, at 5/. per Annum for each Perfon, 
which will make the Annual Expence of the 
Inhabitants amount to 10,000,000/. 

This necejfary Expence is tbusfupplfd. 

The Rental of Ireland is per Annum i ,6oo,OQ0 
The natural Increafe of Cattle, and? 

the Produft of the Land by Hus- 0,200,000 
bandry, (Sc.per Annum 
And there is fupply'd by other In- ^ 
duftrious Arts , Manufaftures ,( 
Trade, Commerce, Navigation,^' 
&c. about per An. ^ 

X- 5,200,000 

To give Life to this Bufinefs, we have, as is 
generally computed, about 500,000/. of ready 
Money in the Kingdom, which would not be 
fufficient, were it not that private Credit kvvcs 
inftead of Money, and may be cdrd Artificial 
Money ^ and this is computed equal to 1,000,000/^ 
P 4 which 

^l6 Reasons^ 

which added to the Natural Maney^ makes 
, i,f 00,000/. with a Ids Sum than which, it is 
hard to conceive how the Bufinefe of the King- 
dom can be managed. And it's manifeft, that 
the Rents and Produd of the Land, the La- 
bour and Induftry of the People, are all mea- 
fur'd by this Money : But this Money is of no 
greater Intrinftck Value ^ than Comparative with 
the Money of other Nations. 

Now the real Money of this Nation is 500,000/. 
Of which you may fuppofe , that > 

there remains of former Coinages ^^ 25,000/. 

in Cc^er Money ^ the Sum of "^ 
And, if there (houldbe imported by? 

Virtue of Mr. Wood;% Patent in ^100,000/. 

Copper Moneyy even only ^ 

The Copper Money of IrelnnJwouldhc 125,000/. 
" ) that , of Gold and Silver Mo. 
we n^uft at moft, have but 

So that, of Gold and Silver Money^ I , 

Thus, this unwieldy Copper Coin would be 
one fourth Part pf the Real 01 Natural Coin; 
and it's cafy to conceive this difproportion'4 
Quantity of Brqfs Money ^ would, be a Clog 
to the whole Bufinefi of the Nation; for as the 
real Value of this Bafe Money bears a Proporr 
tion to the Imaginary Value of it, but as z to jr. 

refufing Mr. Wood's Coin. 217 

it is certain, Men of Underftanding, would 
make che fame Difference between it, and the 
Gold and Silver Current 'm the Kingdom. . 

Wherefore this Difference diffufing it felf 
through the whole Species oi Copper Money ^ 
tho' the Nominal Value of it fliould be fup- 
pos'd to be 125,000/. yet in real Value it 
would be only equal to 50, 000/. fo that the 
want oilntrinjick Value in the Copper Cain n 

Which mufl: have an Influence on^ 
the whole Cafli of the Nation, and 
confequently create a Diffidence a- 
mong the People of J«/^«4 which e- 1 
venthe bare Apprehenfions of it has > 2.00,000/* 
already, in fome Meafure, efFe£l:ed> 
whereby at leaft, one fifth iPart of the 
prefent Credit in the Country would I 
be abated, and that is equal to J 

la all, to be dedufted from the7 
Natural and Artificial Money of ^275,000/. 
the Nation. ^ 

So that, inftead of a running Cafli and Cre- 
dit, for managing the general Bufinefs of the 
JKangdorp tp the Value oF 1,5 00,000/. we fliould 
pnly have 1,1x5,000/. that is, the Cajh^ and 
Credit of the Nation would be leflen*d of its 
prefent Value^ by more than one fixth Part. 

ai8 Reasons for 

And fince the Lands of Ireland^ and the En-, 
crcafc of thern, the Labour and Induftry of the 
People, (which are their whole Support) muft 
all Sink in their Value, in Proportion, as the 
Intrinjick Value of the Money and Credit of 
the Nation are abated ; it may be better con- 
ceived than expreft'd, what the Gid Confequcn- 
ccs of this wou'd be. 

We may be convinced of the Mifchief at- 
tending fuch a Mixture in the Current Cajhy if 
we pleafe to examine the deplorable Condition 
England was falling intoaboiK the Years 1694 
and 95-, by Means of Part of the Silver Coins 
being debafed by Clipping. To this Pra6bce it 
was owing, that Credit^ both Private and Pu^ 
licky was put to a Stand ; for by this Means a 
Traffick was carry'd on, of exchanging the In- 
trinjick Riches of the Nation, with the Money 
fo debafed : Infomuch, that the Legijlature was 
neceffitated to interpofe, and the Silver Mone)\ 
that was fubjedl to this Diforder, was call'd in 
at the publick Expcnce, and re-coin'd. 

Yet thefc great Diforders and Mifchiefs were 
produc'd from no other Caufe, than the Sil- 
ver's being only clipp'd, whereby that Propor^ 
tion of Value yN2&^t^iof^^ which is fo necefi 
fary to be maintain'd between the current Coins 
of all tradi?tg Nations. But in thofe Pieces of 
Silver there was , at the worfiy a greater Pro- 


refufing Mr. Wood's Coin. ai9 

portion of Intrinfick Value kft, than is to be 
found in the beji Copper Money of Mr. Wood. 
Which, confidering the Poverty of thePeo. 
pie of one Country, conipared with the fou^ 
rijhing Condition of the other, muft abundantly 
(boner Influence us, than it could them: And 
it is allowed by every Body, that the clipped 
Money was an Evil, which, if not remedied, 
would have deftroy'd the I'rad'e of England 
in a fliort Time, and was a Diftemper of that 
Confcquence, that it required the utmoft Skill 
of as Great a King and as Wife a Council as 
ever England had, to remedy it. 

How neceffary was it then for our Poor Na^ 
tionto be careful not to involve it felf iit the like, 
hay, in greater Confufionsi Was it for us to 
Encourage the bringing in of a Parcel of Copper 
Counters^ to pa(s inftead of Money? And bo 
eaufe they are caU'd Halfpence (when m Rea- 
lity, they are hut fifth Parts of Pence) (Iiall we 
receive them for our valuable Goods, our Gold 
and our Silver? 

Perhaps, indeed, we fhould not be immedi- 
ately fenfible of the Evils, that would naturally 
attend this ProjeBj as the Bubble feldom is of 
the Misfortunes he is falling into, until the 
Sharper has made his whole Advantage of him: 
Yet, it is beyond all Doubt, the Etfcfb of it 
liVQuld in Tinve deftroy us. This muft he granted 


120 Reasons for 

by any one, who confiders, as has been prov'A 
that the People of Ireland would be depriv'd 
of at leaft one fixth Part of their prcfent Means 
of Subfiftence ; and it is evident, this is an E- 
vil of fuch a Nature, as would in Time dcftroy 
any trading Country whatfoever. 

Should ever the Affairs oilrelandht reduced 
to this Pafi, the Revenue can never be ftp- 
pos'd to produce as much, as it does now. That 
muft liife and Fall in Proportion, as the Coun- 
try grows Bicb an4 FopulouSy or becomes Poor 
and dispeopled: So that upon tha whole Matter 
it muft appear to all intelligent Perfons, that, 
^ thefe are the natural Confequences of in- 
troducing this bafe Money among us, fo, the 
Importing and Uttering the Copper Farthings 
and Half-pence^ made by Virtue of the Patent 
granted to William Wood, will prove highly 
Prejudicial to his Majefys Revenue^ Defiruc^ 
tive of the Tirade and Commerce of the Nation^ 
and ofmoji dangerous Confequence to the Rights 
and Properties of the SubjeSt. 

But, perhaps, it may be faid, that fincc the 
Patent doth not inforce this Currency of the Cop^. 
per Money ^ but hath left it, to be received by. 
fuch only^ as would Voluntarily and Wilfully ac^ 
cept the fame ; why fliould all thefe Complaints 
be made againft the Patent, and the Patentee? 
And why fliould we ^aife to our felycs fuch 


refufing Mr. Wood*s Coin. iii 

frightful Ideas, of the Confequcnccs which 
may attend this Projcft? 

To this it may be anfwer'd, that the Patent 
is in that Part of it, Juji^ or rather not Bad^ as 
it does not endeavour to take our Liberty jfrortx 
US; but furely, that does not hinder, but we 
may find fuch Faults with the Projeft, as it de- 
ferves, and (hew the evil Confequences to the 
Nation, if the People (hou'd be induced, to take 
a Quantity of thefe Half-pence^ by any Stra* 
tagems or Arts whatfoeven 

And fince our Houfes of Parliament have 
in the Wifdom of theit Counfels obferv'd thefe 
Mifchiefs, it might have been expefted, that 
fuch Deference would be paid their Opinion, 
as that we (hould never fee the Teftihiony of 
Three or Four ohfcure Men^ put, any where, in 
Balance with the Refolutions and Addrejfes of 
the Reprefentatives of fo Great a Nation. 

But the Matter has prov'd othenvife, and we 
have Reafon to appehend, that ftill there may 
be Attempts made, to infbrce a Currency of this 
Coin. Several of thofe Methods did, appear to 
the Parliament. They were well acquainted, 
that Mr. Wood allowed great Premiums (as he 
could well do) to thofe, who (hould undertake 
to difperfe his Money; and they were awaic 
fiich Temptations would have Power with Self* 
interefled Men* They faw, with Grief that 

ll^ REASONS f(fr 

Ibmc Parts of the Patenc might by % forced Con* 
firuBion be explained to incend, that this Capper 
Mmey ihould be accepted in Payments to the 
Crown; and they very juftly conckidod^ that if 
fiida Premuinu were allowed foe difperfing thefe 
7ok€ns^ aod that there ihouid be Co fecure a Mar-^ 
kec for them as the Exchequer^ it would be 
<kfficult to prevent their obtaining a Currency 
among us; dierefore as Dutiful and Loyal Sub^ 
jeSSy and as /n/^P^ifrio^j of their Country, they 
firft reprcfented the greac ApprAenfions they 
had of Danger from this Patent, and then, in 
order to avert the Evil, befeedi'd bis Majefty to 
diredj that this Coin flootdd not be recei^dby 
the Officers^ entrujled with the Receipt of bis 

As the Great Council of the Kingdom, it be- 
came them to do fo: For it is their Duty to 
enquire into every thing that may difturb . the 
Publick Tranquillity I and whatever Dangers 
they find Threatning, they are obliged to ac- 
quaint the King with them. Nor can there be 
a greater Inftance of Refpea to his Maj^y^ 
than, thus humbly to Addrels his TTirone, to 
pray him to give Orders to his Miniftcrs, to 
prevent the Deftruftion of his People, by lb 
mild and juft a j^ethod^ as forbiddii^ them 
10 allow a Curretk^ to thefe Halfpence in the 
^chequer I wkch all Men know> was only 
3 befeeching 

refujing Mr. W o o d*s Coin. 223 

bcfceching his Majejiyy to Order ^he Officers 
of bis Revenue, to act conformable to the 
Laws of the Land. 

It is therefore the Duty of every particular 
Perfon of this Nation, to concur with the En* 
deavours ufed by our Parliament^ to avert the 
Evil of this Coinage; and fmce we have a 
Right to refufe this Coin^ let every one of us 
continue to rejeft it, and let us not be tempted 
by Views of private Advantage^ to . involve our 
Country^ in the Miferies which muft of courfe 
be brought upon it, if this Brafs Money fliOuld 
obtain a Currency among us. The good Con- 
(equences that have already attended the Op- 
pofing of this Patent , ought to Encourage us 
in Perfevering in it : For fincc the Qiiantity al- 
lowed by the Patent to be coin'd, is already 
reduced to 40,000/. we have rcafon to expeft, 
upon a continued unanimous Oppofition to the 
Patentee and humble Application to his Majejly^ 
it will be wholly laid afide. 

But, before I conclude, I fliall beg leave to 
compare the Patent for Coining Copper Money 
for Ireland^ granted by King Charles the H. and 
afterwards renewed to Mr. Knox by King 
"James the 11. with this granted to Mr. Wood^ 
and to examine the Afay made of Mr. Wood*s 
Coinage in the Tower of London, upon the 
Confiderations of ixjth which, the Lords of the 


Council ot Great Britain^ ground their Red- 
fons, in their Report to his Majcfty, for jufti- 
fying Mr. Wood\ Patent. 

It has been faid, and the Lords of the Coun- 
cil of Great Britain fcem to believe, That tb^ 
Care and Caution made ufe of^ in this Patent 
granted to Mr. Wood, by proper Conditions^ 
Checks and Comptrolsy have effeBually provided, 
that the Copper Money coin' d for Ircknd by 
Virtue of this Patent^ Jhouldfar exceed the like 
Coinages for Ireland, in the Reigns ofhisMa-^ 
jejifs Royal Predecejfors, arid this^ they (ay, is 
evidently prov\d by the^ryals and Affays made 
of the Finenefs, Value and Weight of this Cop- 
per Money, and the Goodnefs thereof compared 
with former Coinages of Copper Money for Ire- 
land. But before I examine this ^ay^ I will 
compare the Patents, iii (bme of their Circum- 
ftances together. 

Mr. fVoody by his Patent, has a Power given 
him of Coining 3 60 Tons of Copper for Ireland^ 
and he is allow'd to make thirty Pence out of 
every Pound Weight of Copper. By the Patent 
granted by King Charles U. and renewed by 
King James II. to Mr. Knox, the Patentees had 
Liberty to coin fuch Quantities of Copper Half 
pence, as they could conveniently Ifliie, and they 
had Liberty to make 32^. out of a Pound of 
Copper. In this Mr, Knox feems to have had 
3 . the 

refufin^ Mr. Wo o d's Coin. i%S 

the Advantage of Mr. Wood^ in as much as he 
had Liberty of coining two Pence more, out of 
a Pound of Copper^ than Mr. Wood has ; but ic 
will appear far othcrwife, if we confidcr, that in 
the Time of the former Coinages, Copper^ of the 
feme Finencfi, with what is now worth in Ire^ 
land II d. per Pound, could not be bought for 
Ids than i8 i. per Pound. According to which 
Difference in the Price of the Material, the Pa- 
tent granted to Mr. Wbod^ ought to have regu- 
lated his Coinage at x6 d. per Pound of Copper^ 
and he would have had the fame Benefits, that 
were allowed to the Patentees by the former Pa- 

But Mr. Wood \s allowed to make 30^. out of 
a Pound of Coppery therefore, he has a fuperior 
Advantage given him of 4 i/./^r Pound, which, 
upon 360 Tons,' amounts to 13,440/. And 
hereby it is plain, the Patent granted to Mn 
Woody is not equally advantagious to the 
People of Irelandy with that granted to Mr. 

But, fiirther, let it be fuppos'd, that the 
Comptroller appointed by Mr* Wood's Patent, 
takes effe6tual Care of the Goodnefs, and Finc- 
nefsof the Copper, of which his Half-peftce and 
Farthings are made: Yet the Care taken in the 
former Patents, was more effeftual ; for, tho* 
there was no exprefs Provijion madcy for the 

Q^ Goodnefs 

^x6 Reasons y^r 

Goodnefs and Finenefi of the Ct^r^ yet there 
was a more e(!cdual Remedy provided againft 
all the Mifchiefs, that could attend that Coinage, 
as appears by the Claufe of Mr. Knox*s Patent, 
which is already mentioned Pa^e 209. which 
was an efTeflual Remedy againd; tbe pourit^ in 
too great a quantity of Copper i/hney^ which is 
the great Evil to be dreaded. And thus, the 
former Patentees were bound by their own In- 
tereft, to take Care of the ^ality of the Half- 
pence^ and ^antity to be utter'd ; whereas Mr. 
Wood \s not properly reflrain'd, having no more 
to fay to his Halfpence and Fartbings^ after 
they have once pafs'd the Comptroller's Infpefiti- 
on. And of what liale Security this Reftri<^oa 
is on him, I (ball hereafter haveoccafion to take 

It is al(b w<Mth obferving, that, in the Patent 
granted to Mr. KnoXy there is a &rther Care 
taken, that that Coinage (hould not prove Mis- 
chievous to the People of Ireland; for his then 
Majcfty did Covenant and Promifey that if dur-» 
ifig the Term thereby grantedy it jhouUfall out 
to he convenient y for the Good of his Sut^ds^ 
that any Alteration (houU he made in tbe Me- 
tal, or in the Stamp ofthejuid Copper HalP 
pence, tbat^ infuch Cafe^ be would Authorife 
by Proclamation, fucb Alteration^ asjhould be 
found Fit and Convenient ; Whereby it is plain, 


refujing Mr. Wo o d's Coin. 1x7 
that, by this Patent, a Power was ftill referv'd 
in the Crown,' to prevent, by Proclamation, any 
Evil Confequences, that might have attended 
that Coinage, which, it's manifed:, was only in- 
tendedyj?r the Good of the SubjeSis of Ireland. 
Whereas we are told, that by the Patent to Mr. 
Woody his Majefty has diverted himfelf of all 
Power of relieving his Subjefe, from the Dan- 
gers of this Coinage, unk(s it be by a Writ of 
Scire facias ^y and if it be really fo, it would 
feem, as if this Patent was, rather a Grant in 
Favour of the Patentee, than for the Good of 
the People of Ireland. 

It has been alfo faid, that the Money coin' d by 
Virtue of the Patent granted to John Knox, is 
madey and declared to be Current Coin of the 
Kingdom of Ireland, I have therefore very care- 
feiUy examined that Patent, and I cannot find it 
contains any Thing, that can be explained this 
way J only the Claufe, whereby it is ordained 
that the Copper Half-pence, made by Virtue of 
the faid Patenty Jhould pafSy and be generally 
ufedy betmeen Man and Many as Money for the 
^alue of Half-pence. But this is not an attempt 
to inforce a Currency of this Coiny or to make 
it lawful Moneyy contrary to the known Laws 
of the Kingdom. It is only a Licence, thatthofe 
Half pence pall be ufed ge^terally between Man 
4^nd Man-y ,and this will appear to have been 
Q^ the 

2i8 Reasons for 

the Intent of the Patent, on reading the Claufe 
mentioned in Page 209, wherein a Difference t^ 
made, between this Copper Money ^ and the C«r- 
rent Money of the Kingdom; which Difference 
would have been unneceflary, if it was intend- 
ed, that the Copper Money (hould have been 
made the Current Money of Ireland. 

And the whole purport of the (aid Patent 
confirms this Opinion : For in the Claufe imme- 
diately following that which I have juft now 
cited, his Majefty declares, that to the intent 
that juft Exchange {which is provided for in the 
former Claufe) may be maintained, and confe- 
quently all Inconveniencies avoidedy which might 
otherwife happen to his Subje£ls, contrary to his 
gracious Intention and Meaning ; his Will and 
Pleafure therefore isy that there be from T!ime to 
^ime^ a convenient ^antity of the f aid Half- 
pence, fent to as many Cities^ Burroughs Corpo^ 
rate^ and Market-T'owns^ and other Places with- 
in the Realm of Ireland, as the Patentees Jhall 
think fity and neceffary for the Ufe and Occaf" 
ons of the People of Ireland, and the fame Cop- 
per Half-pence, to be left in the Hands of fome 
difcrcct Perfon or Perfons in the faid Cities^ 
&c. together with fuficient Means^ for theKc- 
change of the faid Half-pence. And when his 
Majejlyy in the fame Patent, Wills and Requires 
bis Chief Governors, &c. for the I'ime beings 


refujing Mr.^oojy's Coin. 119 

to- Endeavour^ that tbefaid Copper Half-pence, 
may freely" Fafi in Ufe^ between Man and Man;, 
it is exprefly faid, in the way of Exchange, as is 
before exprefe'd. Whereby it is manifeft, that 
it was never intended, this Coin (hould be made 
the current Money of the Kingdom: But was 
only to pafs by way of Excharige^ as is before 
cxprefi'd ; that is, the Patentees to Exchange 
them for Gold and Silver^ (which are the only 
lawful Money of this Kingdom) whenever the 
fame would be required, and this the Chief 
Governors^ &c. were commanded by the (aid 
Patent to fee duly perform'd. 

I muft beg leave further to Remark, that the 
Patent granted to Mr. KnoXy was order'd to be 
enrolled in the Rolls of the High Court of Chan- 
cery in Irelandy whereas this granted to Mr. 
TFoody is enrolled in England -^ and tho' this may 
feem no material Difference, yet I cannot for- 
bear looking upon it, as a Matter of very great 
Confequence ; for it is a Queftion, whether a 
Writ of Scire facias will lie in Ireland againft 
this Patent, and it feems yery agreeable to Rea- 
fon, that a Tryal on fuch a Writ, if the Patent 
could not be any otherwife vacated, ought to 
be had in this Kingdom, rather than in England. 
But this, and the Inconveiiiencies that might at- 
tend fuch a Tryal, in cafe it could be had in 
Irelandy on this Patent granted under the Great 

0^3 Sal 

230 Reasons for 

Seal of Englandy and enroH'd in that Kingclom, 
I muft leave to the Confiderarion of thofe who 
arc learn'd in the Laws of the Land. 

Upon the whole Matter, I think it plainly 
appears, that the Patent granted to Mr. Wood^ 
is not equally Beneficial to the Kingdom of Ire- 
land, with the former Patents ; arid that from 
the foregoing great and ejfential Differences^ 
whereby itfeemsfufficientlyjiiftifedy that Care 
and Caution tvas not ufed in granting the Let^ 
ters Patent to Mr. Wood. 

And now I fliall Examine the Aflay made of 
Mr. Wood's Coinage, in the Tower of London-; 
and to do this the better, I (hall beg leave to an- 
nex a Coppy of the Report thereof, to thefe 

By this Report, it is Evident, that there 
was but one Species of Mr. flood's Half-pence 
Affay'dy viz. thbfe which were coined between 
the xyth cf Marchy 17x3. and March aSth 
17x4. bearing on the Reverie, HTJSERr 
NIA fitting with a Harp by her left Side, and 
the Date of the Year. Thefe might have the 
Qualities certified, and the jFnitfi/ charged on the 
Patentee Ml fubfift. For the Aflaysmade in 
Irelandy and laid before the Houfes ofParlia^ 
ment^ in the Month of September^ i7^3- 
were on different ^ecies imported into Iretandx 
in order to be utter'd, arid raoft of them were 

^^fnfi^ Mr. Wood's Coin. 231 
cmCA in the Year 171a, as appears by their ^ 
Dates, and feveral of the Impreffions on the 
Reverie, were different from the Species that 
was try'd in the Tower of London. 

The Perfons concerned in die AflEiy made in 
Ireland^ were examined by a Committee of the 
n»hok Hmfe of Commons in a moft folcmn Man- 
ner ; a Method not obferved, on the other fide 
the Wat^. 

And, to the End there fliould be no Ground 
given, for an bnputation that light pieces were 
pick'd up for the Tryal in Ireland^ but that the 
fame (hould be made with all the Candor ima- 
ginable; I am well affiired, that the AfTay made 
in Ireland was proved by feveral Tryals on 
large Parcels of Mr. Wood^s Half-fence^ then 
lying in the Stores of his Majefty's Cuftom- 
Houfe in Dublin^ which were imported from 
BriJhJ: So that this Affay made by Order of 
the Houji of Commons oflrelandy can't with any 
Shew of Reafon, be call'din Queftion, but cer- 
tainly carries better Evidence of Truth with it, 
than any other Aflay whatfoever. 

By this Aflay it appeared, that Half-pence of 
four different Impreffions, and of much lefe 
weight, than was required by Patent were im- 
ported into Ireland before September^ ^T^ly of 
which Specimens are in the Cuftody of the Clerk 
of the Houfe of Commons. But there was only one 
Q^ 4 fort 

a32 Reasons for 

fort produced before the Gentfcmcii cmpIdyM to 
make the Aflay in the Tower diLondm ; which 
could not have happened, if the Comptroller 
had perform'd his Dutyj for then he wouVl 
have taken T^ryal Pieces out of each different 
Parcel that was coin'd during the whole Time, 
and then the different ImpreJJions and Dates 
would have appearM, to the Gentlemen who 
were appointed to make the Aflay in the Tow-* 
ex oi London. 

But this having, in all appearance, been con*'* 
trived, by yiii.Wood znd his Accomplices, inor^^ 
der to deceive the Lords of the Council, as in Ef* 
fe6t it has done, it may be allow'd that other 
Contrivances that could fcrve to the feme End, 
were put in praftice : And then, it is natural to 
believe, the heavieji Pieces were choien out of 
Mr. Wood's Coinage^ for this Tryal. 

But Mr. Wood has impofed on the Lords of 
the Council in another mofl: material Point, and 
jn this too the Comptroller is very deeply con- 
cern*d with Mr. Wood. This will appear by 
comparing the Report of the C6mmittee of 
Counpil, with the Report of the Aflay* In the 
former it is faid, " That the Comptroller's Ac-^ 
*' counts of the Qiiahtities of. Half-pence and 
^Farthings coin'd, agreed with Mr. Wood's 
♦^ Account, amounting to 59 Tuns, 3 Hundred, 
^ I Qiiart?r^ii JPound,and 4 Oyncesj'* Wherc^ 

refufing Mr. Wood's Co in. a33 

as by the Report tnade of the Aflay it appears 
that, *^ from Lady-day 17x3, to die twenty- 
*' eighth of March 1714, there was that Quan- 
*' tity coitfd.*' 

From hence it is plain, that no Account has 
been teturn'd of the Coinage in the Year i7iz, 
and the Lords of the Council were made to be- 
lieve that the Quantities oi Copper coin'd a- 
mounted in the whole only to the afore&id 
Weight, and in Tale to 17,000 /•* whereas by 
the Report of the Aflay it appears, that Quan-, 
tity and Sum was coined between the Twenty* 
fifth of Marchy 17x3, and the Twenty-eighth of 
Marchy 17x4. 

And feeing that the Patent was enroU'd in the 
Rolls of the High Court of Chancery in Eng-- 
land^ on the izth Day oijuly^ lyxx, the Pa- 
tentee had full eight Months to coin in, before 
the xj'th of March 17x3: In which Time, at 
the Rate of 100 Tuns for the firft Year, as pre* 
fcrib'd by the Patent, he muft have coin'd 66 
Tuns at leafl:, which at zs. 6V. ^r Pound a- 
mountsto 18,480/. and this was intirely with- 
held from the Knowledge of the Lords of the 
Council, fo that Mr.:^Whad coin'd 3^,480/, 
in Talc, when he and/the Comptroller pretend, 
.cd there was only . 1:7000/. coin'd. 

Now, this has been an Impofition of a moft 
high Natvire, and it Is enough to demonftrate^ 


a34 Reasons for 

that there is little Expcdation, of ever being a- 
blc to (ct Limits to a beneficial Coinage entruH:-^ 
ed in private Hands, by the Means of any 
Comptroller ; and therefore all Proposals from 
Mi.ff^ood of limiting his Coinage to 40,000 /. or 
to any other Sum, are Amufements that wife 
Men will never be deceived by. 

I muft forther beg leave to remark, that, the* 
it IS (aid in the Report, ^ That the Udf^pence 
« and Farthings coined by Mr. fi^$od when 
« compared with the Copper Money coined for 
^ Ireland m the Reigns of King Cbarks H. 
« King James U. and King William and Queen 
«* jMjry,confiderably exceeds them all in Wei^t, 
^ Sfr." Yet this is no Way to be confider'd in 
the prefent Queftion. 

For it is of no Confequence to examine the 
intriniSck Value of our prefent Half^pencey bc^ 
caufc, as the People oi Ireland are notfurchar^d 
with them, they are generally eftcemed for the 
Convenicncy of making (mail Payments, and, 
until this Attempt of Mr. Wood, we have not 
been in Danger of being furchar^d with Cop* 
per Money y but when this Danger, of having a 
difproportioned Quantity brought in, did threa- 
ten us ; it was then, as has been already (aid, 
the Concern of every Body to compute the MiA 
chiefs that might attend it, by the Want of ittr 
trinfick Value in the Coin. 


refujing Mr. WooD*s Coin. ^Sf 

Upon Ais Matter of the Aflay made of Mr. 
Wood's Copper Money ^ I muft alfo take Notice, 
that tho' the Copper of which Mr. Wood^ Ralf^ 
pence '3xt made, fliould be alloV4 ta be, of the 
fame Goodnefs and Value with that, of which 
the Copper Money is coin'd in his Majefly's Mint 
for England ; yet the Quantity of Money that is 
allowed to be coined out of a Pound of Copper 
for Ireland^ is not in a juft Proportion to what 
is coin'd for England. 

For, if the fame Proportion that is obferv'd be- 
tween the Siher Money of each Nation, was 
maintained in the Copper Coin, then there 
ought not to be made out of one Pound of Cop- 
per for Ireland^ but ^S Pence and Two thirds 
of a Penny. For as 24 Pence of Silver Money 
t^Englandy yields 2(5 Pence in Ireland, Co 23 
Pence, the Quantity of Half-pence made out of 
^ a Pound of Copper for £;3gA^/?i, is equal to 2 jT 
Pence and ^ thirds of a Penny, the Quantity 
that ought to be made for Ireland. 

' But as Mr. Wood has Liberty to make 30 Pence 
out of a Pound of Copper for Ireland^ fo he has 
all Advantage of 4^ence, and i Third of a Pen- 
ny on evory Pound of Copper, more than what i^ 
got by the Copper Coinage for England-^ and 
this upon 360 Tuns amounts to 14,000/. and 
by this Means, the Difference between the Cop^ 
iter Money of England, and the Copper Money of 
* Ireland 

11^6 R E A s o N s /or 

Ireland^ would prove 32 and a hzlf per CenL 
And as the Difference of the Value of Money, is 
<Mie of the chief Reafons of the rifing of Ex- 
change between two Nations, it is manifeft, that 
if this Coin of Mr. Wood had been forced upon 
us, the Exchange between England and Ire- 
land would be railed at leaft 30 per Cent, where- 
as for (bmc Years paft", it has by a Medium kept 
at about 10 per Cent. 

And if the Exchange fliould thus come to be 
raifed, it would produce moft fisttal Confcquences 
to the Trade^ and generally to every other Bufi- 
nefs of the Nation. 

That thofe of my Readers who are unac- 
quainted with Matters of this Nature, may be 
able to judge of the Difadvantages, (iich high 
Exchange would produce : I muft inform them, 
that the Caufes of the Rife and Fall of Ex- 
cliange, are, cither the Variation of the Price of 
the Coin in any Country, or the Demand that 
happens to be in one Country, for Money in 
another, or, fometimes both thefe Caufes meet- 
ing together. 

Now, 'cis well known, that the great Num- 
ber of 7rj/Z> Landlords, the Penfioners and great 
Officers on our Civil and Military Eftablilhments, 
who live in England ; and the Income, of our 
Pbft-Office, and feme other Portions of publick 
Money, which are yearly remitted to that Coun- 

refujlng Mr. Wood's Coin. 237 
try, do all together occafion a great Demand for 
Money in England: And if a Variation of our 
Coin (hould concur with this, it is eafy to con- 
ceive that the Exchange would rife to the 
Height of the greateji Difference between the 
Money oi England and Ireland. 

It has been already (hewn that the Nominal 
Value of the Silver Money in Ireland^ compa- 
red to the Value of the Silver Money of England^ 
is as 108,333 to 1 00, ^nd Gold in Ireland com- 
pared to Gold in England^ is as I09,5'i5 to loo; 
fo that the Exchange between England and 
Ireland^ holding by a Medium, for fome Time 
paft, at 10 per Cent, confirms our Obfervation, 
that the Exchange muft rife to the greateji Dif- 
Jerencehctwetn the Nominal Value of our Coins. 
Wherefore as the Brafs Money intended to be 
forced upon us by Mr. Wood (tho* he (hould 
make it conformable to the Rules of his Patent) 
would be 3X and an half per Cent, worfe than 
the Brafs Money ^ and near yo per Cent. wor(e 
than the Silver Money of England -^ it \s eafy to 
conceive that the Price of Exchange between 
England and Ireland^ would be raifed to at lead 
SO per Cent, if this Brajs Coinage (hould be al- 
lowed to take EfFed. 

So that, if in carrying on the general 7'rade 
and Bujinefs of the Nation, the Bills drawn be- 
tween England ^nd Ireland amount to zfloopooL 


X40 'Reasons for 

Light, I hope they'll now appear in amxfieir 
manner, than they did to their Lordfllips. 

For my parr, I can never fuppofe, but the 
Int ere ft oi England^ ^SiAthzioi Ireland^ as now 
efVabli{h*d, (hould be fo united, that it may al- 
ways remain as a Maxim in Politicks, That Ire* 
landoLYinot be deftroy'd without bringing a moft 
fcnfible Damage to the Affairs of England. And 
I'm perfuadcd, the AflFedion of the King is Co 
very great towards his Subjeds in this Country, 
that he never would willingly fufler them to be 
ruin'd by the Projefts of Avaritious Men ; nor 
can it enter into my Mind, that any of the Aff- 
nijlersy who are entrufted with the immediate 
Management of the Affairs of Great Britain^ 
did advife the granting this Patent, out of a de- 
file to hurt his Majefty s moft dutiful Subjeds of 

I'm rather of Opinion, that Mr. Wood found 
means, to make it be believ*d, that it was really 
For the Service of the People of Ireland^ that this 
Patent fhould take place. And now, that it ap- 
pears Mr. Wcod has deceived hh Majejiy in this 
Grant, thofe Minifters who (when they thought 
it was for the Good of this Kingdom) were moft 
Inftrumental in obcaining this Patent, will be the 
readied (it is to be hoped) to caufe it to be vaca- 
ted, fince it's manifefUy deftrudlive of the com- 
mon lutcrcft oikis MajeJly and ImSukj^Sts. 


refufing Mr. Wood's Coin. 141 

I (hall conclude this Paper with a Speech made 
by Queen Elizabeth^ in Anfvvcr to an Addrefi 
of Thanks from the Houfe of Commom of Eng^ 
landy upon her Majejifs publifliing a Proclama- 
tion, declaring feveral Patents to be Null and 
Voidy which yZ>^ had granted to private Perfbns 
who, (under the Colour of Publick Gcody but 
in reality to the great Damage of the Kingdom) 
had obtained them, for the (ble Privilege and 
Liberty of vending fome particular forts of 

And when I have defired, it may be confi- 
der'd, that few Princes had aflerted the Righfi 
of the Crawn^ with a higher Hand than^Z^^ did; 
I (hall leave my Reader with this Speech, to make 
a proper Application of it. The Speech is as 

'' TT Owe you niy bed Thanks and Atknow- 
^* I ^c%cments for your Refpe£t towatds 
^ -*- me, not only for your good Inclina- 
** tion, but thofe clear and publick Expreffions 
•' thereof, which have difcover'd themfelves, in 
" retrieving me from a Miftake, into which I 
«* have been betrafdy not fo much by the Faults 
^* of my Will, as the Error of my JudganenCt 
JJ This had unavoidably drawn a Blemidi wpon 

R " mc 

i^^ Reasons y^r 

" mc (who account the Safety of my People my 
^ chief Happinefs) had you not made me ac- 
'* quainted with the Praftice of thofe lewd Har- 
^^ pies and Horfe^Leeches. I would fooner lofe 
*' my Hand or Heart, than ever confent to al- 
** low fuch Privileges to Engrojfers^ as may turn 
^ to the Detriment of my People. I am not fo 
** blinded with the Luftre of a Crown^ as to 
*^ let the Scale of Jujiice be weigh'd down, by 
** that of an Arbitrary Power. The gay 
^^ Title of a Prince^ may deceive fuch as know 
" nothing of the Secret of Governing, as a gild- 
^ ed Pill may impofe upon the Patient : But I 
** am not one of thofe umvary Princes j for I 
*' am very fenfible, that I ought to govern for 
^ the Publick Goody and not regard my own 
" particular, and that I ftand accountable to 
" another, a greater Tribunal I account my 
" felf vpry Happy, that by God's Afllftance, I 
** have enjoy'd fo profperous a Government in 
^' all Refpeds, and that he has blelled mc with 
" fuch SubjeBsy for whom I could be contented 
" to lay down my Crown and my Life. I muft 
" intreat you, that, let others be Guilty of 
** what Faults or Mifdemeanours foever, they 
^* may not, through any Mifreprefentation, be 
" laid at my Door. I hope the Evidence of a 
*^ good Confcience will, in all Refpc6fe, bear mc 
* '' out 

refujing Mr. W o o d^s Coin. 24^ 

** out. You cannot be Ignorant, that the Ser-^ 

** vants of Princes^ have too often, an Eye to 

" their own Advantage ; that their Faults are 

^ often concealed from their Notice, and that 

*' they cannot, if they would, infpe£t all Things^ 

*^ when the Weight and Bufinefi of a whole 

" Kingdom, lies on their Shoulders. 


( 244 ) 


A Copy of the Report made by Sir 
Ifaac Newton y Ed. Southwell y and 
John Scroope. Efqrs j of the ^ffay 
made of Mr. Wood's Copper Mo- 

1*0 the Right Honourable the Lords Commijjp' 
oners of his Majejlfs Treajury. 

May it pleafe your LordJhipSy 

|C CORDING to your Lordfliips 
Order, the Pix of the Copper Mo^ 
ney coined at Brifiol by Mr. Wood 
for Ireland^ has been opened, and tryed before 
us, at his Majefty*s Mint in the Tower: And, 
by the Comptroller's Account^ to which Mr. 
Wood agreed, there has been coined^^/» Lady- 
day y 17x3, to Marchy 28th, 17x4. in Half- 
pence, S5 Tons, J Hundred, 3 Quarters, and 
iz Ounces; and in Farthings, 3 Tons, 17 Hun- 
dred, X Quarters, 10 Pounds, 8 Ounces, Aver- 
dupois; the whole Coinage amounting to 5*9 ^ons 
3 Hundredy i ^artery 1 1 PoundSy and 4 Oun- 
ces. And by Specimens of this Q)inage, which 
have from Time to Time been taken from fe- 

* vcral 

( MJ ) 
▼eral Parcels coined, andfealed up in Papers > 
and put into the Pix; we found, that 60 Half- 
Pence weighed 14 Ounces Troy, and 18 Pen- 
ny Weight, which is about a quarter of an 
Ounce, above i Pound Weight Averdupois; 
and that 30 Farthings weighed 3 Ounces, and 
3 Quarters of an Ounce Troy, and 46 Grains 
which is alfb above the Weight required by his 
Patept. We found alfo, that both Half -pence 
and l^arthings^ when heated red Hot, fpread 
thin lender the Hammer, without Cracking, as 
your Lordfliips may fee by the Pieces now 
laid before your Lordfliips. But altho' the Cop- 
per was very good, and the Money one Piece 
with another was full Weight, yet the fingle 
Pieces were not fo equally coined, in the 
Weight, as they fliou'd have been. 

We found alfb, that 3^ old Half-pence 
coined for Ireland y in the Reigns of King 
Charles II. King James H. King William III. 
and Queen Mary^ and produced by Mr. Wood, 
weighed 6 Ounces and 8 Penny Weight Troy, 
that is 103 Grains and a hallf a Piece, one 
with another. They were much worn, and 
if about 6 or 7 Grains be allowed to each of 
them, one with another, for lo(s of their Weight 
by wearing, the Copper Money, coined for 
England y in the Reign of King William^ be- 
ing already as much lightened by Wearing, 
R 3 they 

%^6 REAsoKsj^r 

they might at firfl: weigh about half a PouikI 
Averdupois, whereas 30 ofthofecoitied by Mr. 
fFood are to be of that Weight. They 
were alfo made of bad Copper. Two of thofe 
coined in the Reign of King Charles 11. wafted 
much in the Fire, and then fpread thin under 
the Hammer, but not fo well without cracking 
as thofe of Mr. fFooJ. Twp of thofe coined 
in the Reign of King James 11. wafted more in 
the Fire, and were not Malleable when red Hot. 
Two of thofe coined in the Reign of King Wtl- 
fiam and Qiieen Mary^ wafted ftill more in the 
Fire, and turned to an un-malleable Subftancc, 
like a Cinder; as your Lordfliips may fee by 
the Pieces now laid before you. 

By the AJfaySy we reckon the Copper of 
Ml. Wood's Half-pence and Farthings, to be of 
the fame Goodnefi and Value with the Copper, 
of which the Copper Money is coined in th^ 
King's Mint for England^ worth in the Mar- 
Jcet, about ii, or 13 d. per Pound Weight, 
. Ayerdupois. And the Copper of which the 
Half-pence were coined for Ireland y in the 
Reigns of King Charles^ King Jame^ and King 
William^ to be much Inferior in Value, the 
Mixture being unknown, and not bearing the 
fire, for converting it to any other ufe, until 
it be refined. 


Report of the Ass ay ^ &c. 147 
The Halfpence and Farthings in the P/at, 
Coined by Mr. Wood^ had on one Side the Head 
of the King, with this Infcription, Georgius 
Dei Gratia Rex, and on the other Side, 
a Woman fitting, with a Harp by her left Side, 
and above her, this Infcription, Hibbrnia, 
with the Date. The Halfpence coined in the 
Reigns of King Charles, King James and King 
JVilliam, had, on one Side, the Head of King 
Charles, King James, or King William and 
Queen Mary, and on the Reverfe, a Harp 

All which Fads, we moft humbly Repre- 
fent to your Lordfliips. April^ xjxk\^ ^l'^\^ 

R 4 




1 tT E N fir ft the 'Squire^ and T'inkerlVood 

Gravely confuking Ireland's Good, 
I Together mingled in a Maft 
SmTth's Dud, and Copper, Lead and Brafs^ 
The Mixture thus by Chymick Art, 
United clofc in ev'ry Part, 
In Fillets roird, or cut in Pieces, 
Appcar'd like one continued Species, 
And by the forming Engine ftruck, 
On all the fame Impkession ftuck. 

So to confound this hated CoWy 
All Parties and Religions ioyn; 


( H9 ) 
Wl^gSy ^orieSy frimmers^ Hanoverians^ 
^akerSy ConformiftSy Presbyterians^ 
Scotcby Iripy Englijhy French unite 
With equal Infreji^ equal S fight, 
Together mingled in a Lump, 
Do all in One Opinion pmp-. 
And ev'ry one begins to find, 
The (ame Impression on his Mind; 
A ftrange Event! whom Gold incites 
To Blood and Quarrels, Brafs unites; 
So Goldfmiths (ay, the coarfeft Stuff, 
Will ferve for Solder well enough. 
So, by the Kettle's loud Alarm, 
The Bees are gathered to a Swarm: 
So by the Brazen Trumpet's Bluftcr, 
Troops of all Tongues and Nations mufter: 
And fo the Harp of Ireland brings 
Whole Crowds about its Brazen Strings. 
There is a Chain let down from Jove^ 
But faften'd to his Throne above; 
So ftrong, that from the lower End, 
They (ay, all humane Things depend: 
This Chainy as Ancient Poets hold. 
When Jove was Young, was made o£Gold. 
Prometheus once this Chain purloin'd, 
Diirolv'd, and into Money Cova'A-y 
Then whips me on a Chain of Brafs^ 
(Venus was bribed to let it pa(s.) 


( 2.^0 ) 

Now while this Brazen Chain prevail^, 
Jove (aw that all Devotion fail'd; 
No temple to his Godjhip raisy. 
No Sacrifice on Mtari blazMj 
In fliort, fuch dire Confufiom followed, 
Earth muft have been in Chaos fwaliow'd. 
Jove flood anuz'd and looking round, 
With much iado, the Cheat he found; 
Twas plain he cou'd no longer hold 
The World in any Chain but Gold: 
And to the God of Wealthy his Brother y 
Sent Mercury to get another. 

Prometheus on a Rock is laid, 

Ty'd with the Chain himfelf had made^' 

On Icy Caucafus to fliiver, 

Where Vultures eat his growing Liver, 

Ye Pow'rs oiGruh-Jireet^ make me able, 
Difcreetly to apply this Fable. 
Say, who is to be linderftood 
By that oldThkf Prometheus? Wood. 
For Jove, it is not hard to guefe him, 

I mean His M God blefs him. 

This ^hief and Blaekfmith was fo bold, 
He ftrove to fteal that Chain of Gold 
Which links the Subjed to the Kingy 
And change it for a Brazen String. 


C ^5-1 ) 
But furc if nothing elfe. muft paft 

Between the K and us, but Brajsj 

Akho' the Chain will never crack. 
Yet Our Devotion may grow Slack. 

But Jove will foon convert, I hope. 
This Brazen Chain into a Rope j 
With which Prometheus (hall be ty'd. 
And high in Air for ever ridcj 
Where, if we find his Liver grows. 
For want of Vultures ^ we have Crows. 


To the worthy Author of the 
Drapters Letters, by a Youth 
of Fourteen Years of Age. 

HALL! mighty Man, whofe unexhaufted Spring 
Affords thee Matter on the dulleft Thing; 
Whofe piercing Pen explained thy puzzling Theme, 
Procur'd us Safety, and extoll'd your Name. 
As Thracian Orpheus by his moving Lays 
Caus'd rigid Oah to bend in former Days; 
So your prevailing Pen not only cou'd 
Pull down an Oak^ but overthrow a IVO OD; 
Whilft with fuperiour Majefty. you fliine. 
And not the Bays alone, but all the Groves are thine. 
You high upon th* Jonian Mountain fit. 
Imperial Judge of everlafting Wit, 
Whilft we below upon thy Honours gaze. 
Like dazled Indians on Phcebean Rays, 
Extolling thy inimitable Name, 
Whilft Sympathetick Rocks refound your Fame. 
You foon forefaw, but vanquifh'd with your Stylc^ 
Th' impending Ruin of your native Ifle, 
Thus Tully once preferv'd the Roman State, 
When Rome had like to fall by Ilium'^ Fate. 

( 2-53 ) 

In vain our brazen Foe exprefs'd his Gall, 

He loft his Sring, and only rofe to Fall, 

Thus Fogs and Vapours in a Cloud arife, • 

And foaring, dim the far-oppofing Skies. 

But foon returning to their Native Earth, 

Sink in that Mafs, from whence they took their Birth, 

But thou, O ! Mortal of immortal Fame, 
Have on his Ruin built thy rifing Name: 
Alcides thus his Funeral furviv'd. 
And, by his Conquering Hell , to Heav'n arrived. 



JO N G ; 

Sung at the C L U B at , 

Mr. TAP L^ N's 

The S I G N Of the 

DRAPIER's HEAD m "Vruck-Sfreet 

'"'^Exeii Monumentum JEre perennius. 

H O R A T. 


By Mr. Witheral,, 



''ITH brisk merry Lays, 
We'll Sing to the Praife 
Of that honeft Patriot, the Drapieri 
Who, all the World knows. 
Confounded our Foes, 
With nothing but Pen, Ink, and Paper. 

A Spirit Divine, 
Ran through ev'ry Line, 
And made all our Hearts for to caper: 


He fav'd us our Goods, 
And Dumfounder'd fFooiTs ; 
Then long Life and Health to the Drapier, 


We ne'er fhall forget. 

His Judgment, or Wit, 
But Life, you mult know, is a Vapour; 

In Ages to come. 

We well may prefume. 
They'll Monuments raife to the Drapier ^ 


When Senators meet. 

They'll furely think fit 
To Honour and Praife the good Drapier i 

Nay, Juries fhall join. 

And Sheriffs combine, 
To thank him in well-written Paper* 

V. ^ 

You Men of the Comb, 

Come lay by your Lombj 
And go to the Sign of the Drapier-^ 

To Tap LIN declare. 

You one and all are. 
Kind loving good Friends to his Paper, 


7 Then join Hand in Hand, 

T' each other firm Hand, 
All Health to the Club and the Draphri 

Who merrily meet. 

And Sing in Truck-Street^ 
In Praife of the well-wrilten Paper, 

SONG n. 


ByMr.CHARLES Shadwelu 

CInce the Drapier's let up, and fToodis cry'd down, 
^ Let Ballads be made by the Bards of this Town i 
To thank the brave Drapier for what he has done. 
Which no Body can deny^ brave Boy Sy which no Body can deny. 

When a Projefl: to ruin this Nation was laid. 
To Drain all our Gold^ and give Brafs in its ftead ; 
The Drapier he wnV, and knock'd all on the Head, 

tFbich no Body can deny^ kc* 

His Advice he addrefs'd to Men of all Ranks, 
Which Timely fupported our Trade and our Sanis. 
And no doubt the ^xt SeJ/ion he'll have publick Thanks^ 

Which no Body can deny^ &c. 

But who could imagine that fome Men in Place^ 
Were for bringing this Drapier to Shame and Difgrace ; 
Becaufe he had writ upon tdo nice a Cafe : 

Which no Body can deny^ &c« 

That a 7— of this Country (hould ufe all his Ui% 
To prevail on a J— — j' for finding a 5/7/; 
And diflblve them becaufe they thwarted his will. 

IVhich no Body can deny^ &c. 

In vain are a^^ Offers the Drapier to take. 
This Kingdom iie'er cherifliM a poifinous Snake, 
And Informers are Wretches all Men will forfake. 

Which no Body can deny^ &c. 

And for thegcx)d Things he lias brotiSght to pafs, 
We here for a Sign have fct.up his Face; 
And wifh we cou'd fet up his Statue in Brafs. 

fyhicb no Body can deny^ &c. 

Then, Taplwy fill out a Glafsof the beft. 
And let the King's Health be drank by eacji Gueft, 
Let it fhine in his Face and glow ^n his Breaft. 

Which no Body can dehy^ &c. 

For Carteret^s Merit a Bumper prepare, 
Whofe faithful Report of our Loyalty here. 
Has baffled our Foes and removed all pur Fear. 

Which no Body can deny^ ike. 

The Proteftant Int'reft .Abroad and at Home, 
Our Friends in this City, and thofe^ Comb^ . 
Shall be pledged by all Members in this Club and Room. 

Which no Body can denyj &c. 

Make hafte, honeft Taplin^ and triiig to'ther Pot, 
The />rj^/Vr's good Friends niultiiot be forgot. 
While you have good Liquor, or we liave a Groat. 
Which no Body can deny y fraveSoySy which no body can deny^ 

SONG in. 

By the Reverend Dr. T^oikki SHERibAN. 

OF a worthy Dublin Drapier 
My purpofe is to fpcak,. 
Who^for no private Intcreft, 
But for his Country's fake, 

S By 

By virtuous Honbur led. 

Egregious Hazards run; 
And fo he fet his Country free,. 

Could more have undergone. 


Twice vras he perfecuted. 

By Traitors to the State; 
And twice, by Virtue guarded. 

He did their wiles defeat. 
Seek all the World about. 

And you will hardly find 
A man for Honour to excel 

Our gallant Drapier^s Mind. 


For he was bred in Dublin^ 

The chief of Men was he ; 
From thence, fent o*er to London^ 

A Prentice for to be : 
A Banker near the Court, 

Did like his Service fo. 
That a warm Farm, in his own Land, 

He did on him beftow. 


When back again to Ireland 

This worthy Drapier came. 
He caft about moft nobly, 

T' advance its Wealth and Fame: 
And had the fimple Natives 

Obferv'd his fage Advice, 
Their Wealth and Fame fome years ago. 

Had reach'd above the Skies, 

V. Foi: 

( »59 > 

. V.' 
For oft he them admonifli'd 

To mind the draping trade. 
And wear no manufadtures . 

But what them/elves had made. 
But whilft by thoughtlefs Mortals 

His Schemes negledled 1 ay. 
Some Foes unto their Country's weal. 

His Perfon would betray. 


When thus her Sons turns Enemies, 

What Nation free can laft? 
And now, to quite enflave us* 

A Champion over pafs'd. 
In copper Armour clad, 

A wooden Tool of Might, 
Who, by his boaji of Piwer^ did 

All Ireland affright. 


With juft difdain, the Drapier 

Beheld his brazen Pride,' 
He could not hear, with patience. 

How he our Laws defy'd ; 
Forgetting former wrongs. 

Unto our Aid he flew, ' 
And, with rejijllefs Courage^ he , 

This Giant overthrew. 


But, oh! the curs'd Ingratitude 
Of fome ! (no matter where) 

Let all their names in hiftory 
With Infamy appear. 

For, to reward his Love, 
In raving of their land» 

They plotted to deliver him ^ 
Into the traitor*: hand. 

The Draptery at this Treatqipnt 

Was not a whit difrh^y^'d ; 
But, for his Couijtrey's Safety^ 

More than hfs own, afraid : 
He bravely fent *eni word, 

He'djland the brunt of ^, 
If they would but fecure thelfndj. 

From Wood'5 fad b^a^en thralU 


Thus doth our gallant Drapter 

His Trade, and all, ex||of(^ 
To fave the Land from Fofeij^n^ 

And from DomiJItck foes*: 
Who, their own turn to ferve, 

Moft bafely would agrfp^ 
To bring us in dependence^ 

Who are, by Nature, free^ 

For he hath (hewn, moft dearly. 

We can't be free by halves^ 
And thofe to Subjefts/tti^'^^^i, 

Can be no lefs than Slav? $ 
As yet, no Afl:s we've made. 

And grant we never i^aj^* 
To give our brethren title 

To their pretended, Swaj. 


iz^t ) 


Then with your conftant Praifes 

The Drapier^s Namp adpriV 
^hilflL t^ofe who wou*d betray him, 

Defervc the utmoft fcom : 
In honouring his worth, 

Let grateful Friends be found; 
And with his Health, next to the King*s,, 

Let, glaflefi go all round. 


^OW, we're ftfifthy Naifwe, 
; Let \^ all our Pc^jbTv e?SJti. 
Since each humane Creature 

May his Rigjit affert. 
(Chorus.) Fill Btmp^rs iithn Ifrapkr^ 

fFho/e convincing Paper 

Set usy glorioufij^ 

From 'Brazen Fetters free. 

His warm Zeal infpirM us 

To withftand our Gountry^s Pate, 
Whilft his Writings fir'4 uj?, 

E*er it was too late. 

A true Roman Spirit 

Fir'd our mighty' Hero*s Breaft : 
By him, we inherit . . 

What can xnafe(j,usX«fti 

Fill Bumpers^ &c. 
t Thus 

( 26t X 

Thus he, bright in ftory. 

Like great Najfau once before. 
Freed us all with glory, 

What could mortal more ? 

All friends to the D r a p i e r. 
Who revere his worthy name, 

In honour to his P a p e r. 
Sing his lafting fame. 

Ftll BumperSy ice- 

FillBamperSy &c. 

Thus, ye Sons of Pleafure, 

Who at TAP LIN'S weekly fing. 
In alternate meafure 

Loudly let him ring. 

FillBumpersy &c. 


XTTHen wood had like t' have taken root, 
" And cankered all the Nation, 
The Drapier foon opposM his Suit, 
And ftemm'd his Innovation, 

. As when by Tf^nter's hoary chains 
. The Meadows are involved : 
When Phcebus {hines upon the plains. 
They're by his rays diffolved. 

So, when the Drapier did maintain 
Our caufe, to whom we're Debtors, 



The Fire of his heroick vein, 
DeftroyM our brazen Fetters. 

Our Liberty by him*s reftor'd ; 

Wood'^ foil'd by his own Rapier; 
Nor owe we more to Ndjfau*s Sword, 

Than to his Pen and Paper. 

Amidft his Foes, the Hero (full 

Of Rage) out-brayM the danger; 

And hence, the brazen-footed Bull 
Was fent to Rack and Manger, 

Tofs off your Buraipers, raife a Song, 
He ne'er fhall be forgotten ; 

jHfi Name fhall charm each lift'ning Throng, 
When Wood is dead and rotten. 

Let Healths go round ; cheer up, my Boys, 
And, whilft the Spirit moves ye, . 

Devote the prefent time to Joys ■ 

And Mufick, as behoves ye. 

Here, honeft Taplin, fpare no man. 
Go, fetch us t'other Bottle; 

We'll dance like PhcebuSj fing like Party 
And drink like Arijtotle. 


Dr A pur's HilL 

WE give the World tt) undciftand^ » 
Our thriving Dean had jAirchs^sM Luidi: 
A Purchafe which will brirtg hiili ^lear> 
Above his Rent four Pound Jt Yetfr i . . . ; , 
Provided, to improve the Ground, 
He will but add two hiindnisd PqqtmI^ 
And from his cndlefs hoarded Store, ' 
To build a Houfe Hire huhdiied more^ 
Sir Jrthur ♦ too fhall have hi J Willj 
And call the Manfion Drapier^s Hill ; 
That when a Natidri loflg di<--t'd, 
Forgets by whom it btltt trils «tM ; 
When none the DRAWii'i Ptelft lhd!fl*S, 
His Signs aloft no longed W^lngi 
His Medals and his Prints forgotten. 
And all his HandkercfiieK aft fotteff. 
His famous LfiTTEas friade tVaftfe-pap6r, 
This Hill may keep the Kim6 dfTikAfiiky * 
In Spight of Envy flourifli ftijff. 
And Dpapier*s vye with Cooper's Hill, 

* The Gentkmaii of vfhM ttHi Purcl^(^ Wl$ nuida 

F i N 1 S. 

' f .■«*.■ •' 


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